Past Pizza Lunches

Number of entries: 153

06
May 2016

Automated Planning and Scheduling for Telescopes and Space Missions: a long story


Start: 12:30h
Speaker: Josep Colomé Ferrer
Place: Sala Alberto Lobo (ICE)

Automatic planning and scheduling technology has been applied by ICE to the control layer of telescopes and observatories for almost a decade. I will summarize this "success case" that illustrates how a particular technology (and the involved engineering and scientific staff) can be the motor to push…
Start: 12:30h
Speaker: Josep Colomé Ferrer
Place: Sala Alberto Lobo (ICE)

Automatic planning and scheduling technology has been applied by ICE to the control layer of telescopes and observatories for almost a decade. I will summarize this "success case" that illustrates how a particular technology (and the involved engineering and scientific staff) can be the motor to push the ICE participation in several research missions. In particular, the scheduler for the Cherenkov Telescope Array observatory will be described in some detail in order to show the kind of problem that can be addressed with this AI-based software. This long story will also help showing how the involvement of ICE researchers on renowned hot topics can pull technology beyond the state-of-the-art. This push and pull bidirectional pressure requires an equilibrium for the institute competitiveness and must be based on stable teams and a long-term strategy. On this regard, I will also use this case to talk about project fostering and my experience on the H2020 framework programme, based on 4 submitted proposals with 25% success ratio (luck or strategy?).

Finally, I will end my presentation inviting you to visit the labs in our institute, which are now a reality after some years of hard work and long-term growth projection made by many people at the institute. Advanced technology research will benefit from these facilities that are going to generate many opportunities in our institute, as they may significantly increase the competitiveness of the ICE technology portafolio.
29
April 2016

Critical Gravitational Collapse: From Astrophysical Black Holes to Anti-de Sitter Spacetime


Start: 12:30h
Speaker: Daniel Santos Oliván (Institut de Ciències de l'Espai (CSIC-IEEC))
Place: Alberto Lobo Conference Room (Campus UAB, Institut de Ciències de l'Espai, C/ de Can Magrans s/n)

Gravitational Collapse is a not only an important mechanism of structure formation in the universe but also a key element to understand the fundamental aspects of the Gravitational Theory. Starting from the first ideas about the fate of stars developed at the beginning of the 20th century in the framework…
Start: 12:30h
Speaker: Daniel Santos Oliván (Institut de Ciències de l'Espai (CSIC-IEEC))
Place: Alberto Lobo Conference Room (Campus UAB, Institut de Ciències de l'Espai, C/ de Can Magrans s/n)

Gravitational Collapse is a not only an important mechanism of structure formation in the universe but also a key element to understand the fundamental aspects of the Gravitational Theory. Starting from the first ideas about the fate of stars developed at the beginning of the 20th century in the framework of General Relativity, I will explain the concept of Choptuik's critical collapse as one of the first results of Numerical Relativity. To conclude, I will introduce Anti-de Sitter spacetime, its current interest related with the AdS/CFT correspondence and our work in the critical features of this scenario. 
22
April 2016

Stellar explosions at high energies, as seen now and with future space missions


Start: 12:30h
Speaker: Margarita Hernanz Carbó
Place: Sala Alberto Lobo (ICE)

X- and gamma-rays trace crucial phenomena occurring during stellar explosions of novae and supernovae. The so-called "golden era" of X-ray astronomy has been possible thanks to a number of space missions (e.g., XMM-Newton, Chandra, Swift), which  provide a wealth of information leading to important…
Start: 12:30h
Speaker: Margarita Hernanz Carbó
Place: Sala Alberto Lobo (ICE)

X- and gamma-rays trace crucial phenomena occurring during stellar explosions of novae and supernovae. The so-called "golden era" of X-ray astronomy has been possible thanks to a number of space missions (e.g., XMM-Newton, Chandra, Swift), which  provide a wealth of information leading to important advances in the understanding of nova explosions. In the high-energy gamma-rays domain, Fermi/LAT has opened a new window where novae are now "routinely" detected, showing that they play a role as particle accelerators. The main contributions of our group at ICE in both topics will be summarized. Regarding gamma-rays in the MeV range, the situation is not so optimistic, because the sensitivity of available instruments has not improved enough to enable the detection of novae. An important step forward in sensitivity is required to bridge this gap, and strong efforts are being done in this direction. We will discuss why these advances are so challenging and present the current efforts we are doing, in the framework of the international consortium preparing the ASTROGAM space mission proposal to ESA.
15
April 2016

Gamma-ray emission from binary systems


Start: 12:30h
Speaker: Jian Li
Place: Sala Alberto Lobo (ICE)

Particle acceleration and resulted high energy emission are important topics of astrophysics research. Binary systems are a perfect laboratory for this investigation. Considering their much smaller scale than most populated gamma-ray sources, binary systems are extremely efficient particle accelerators…
Start: 12:30h
Speaker: Jian Li
Place: Sala Alberto Lobo (ICE)

Particle acceleration and resulted high energy emission are important topics of astrophysics research. Binary systems are a perfect laboratory for this investigation. Considering their much smaller scale than most populated gamma-ray sources, binary systems are extremely efficient particle accelerators which have been well established as high energy gamma-ray sources. They provide access to different physical conditions on relatively short periodic time scale, which allows access to different conditions for efficient particle acceleration along orbit and chance to study repetitions and divergence from repetition. Gamma-ray emitting mechanisms are diverse among binary systems. In this talk, I will introduce the gamma-ray emission from binary systems, with a focus on colliding winds scenario.
08
April 2016

Collisional processing of undifferentiated asteroids: fitting the meteorite evidence


Start: 12:30h
Speaker: Josep M. Trigo-Rodríguez (Institut de Ciències de l'Espai (CSIC-IEEC))
Place: Alberto Lobo Conference Room (Campus UAB, Institut de Ciències de l'Espai, C/ de Can Magrans s/n)

Most meteorites reaching our planet are fragments from recent collisions experienced in the asteroid belt. In such a hyper-velocity collision, the smaller collision partner is destroyed, whereas a crater on the asteroid is formed or it is entirely disrupted, too. The present size distribution…
Start: 12:30h
Speaker: Josep M. Trigo-Rodríguez (Institut de Ciències de l'Espai (CSIC-IEEC))
Place: Alberto Lobo Conference Room (Campus UAB, Institut de Ciències de l'Espai, C/ de Can Magrans s/n)

Most meteorites reaching our planet are fragments from recent collisions experienced in the asteroid belt. In such a hyper-velocity collision, the smaller collision partner is destroyed, whereas a crater on the asteroid is formed or it is entirely disrupted, too. The present size distribution of the asteroid belt suggests that an asteroid with 100 km radius is encountered 1014 times during the lifetime of the Solar System by objects larger than 10 cm in radius; the formed craters cover the surface of the asteroid about 100 times. A Monte Carlo code that takes into account the statistical bombardment of individual infinitesimally small surface elements, the subsequent compaction of the underlying material, the formation of a crater and a regolith layer is presented. This approach is part of a forthcoming Ap.J. paper [Beitz et al., 2016] that compares the ejected material from this theoretical cratering approach with the shock stage of meteorites with low petrologic type and that these most likely stem from smaller parent bodies that do not possess a significant regolith layer. For larger objects, which accrete a regolith layer, a prediction of the thickness depending on the largest visible crater can be made. These results have important implications in the future exploration of solar system objects.
04
March 2016

From Novae to Type Ia Supernovae


Start: 12:30h
Speaker: Mariko Kato (Keio University, Japan)
Place: Sala Alberto Lobo (ICE-CSIC)

I will review the current theoretical understanding on classical novae and their importance in astrophysics. A nova is a thermonuclear runaway event on a mass-accreting white dwarf. When a nova outburst occurs, the accreted hydrogen-rich envelope greatly expand and a large part of the envelope is blown…
Start: 12:30h
Speaker: Mariko Kato (Keio University, Japan)
Place: Sala Alberto Lobo (ICE-CSIC)

I will review the current theoretical understanding on classical novae and their importance in astrophysics. A nova is a thermonuclear runaway event on a mass-accreting white dwarf. When a nova outburst occurs, the accreted hydrogen-rich envelope greatly expand and a large part of the envelope is blown off in the wind. Despite of the variety of timescales of light curves, there is a common property of declining behavior of the optical/IR light curves which is explained with the optically thick wind theory. Also there are general properties in color-color and color-magnitude properties, which are powerful to determine the interstellar extinction and distance. Finally I briefly introduce recurrent novae as one of the progenitor system of type Ia supernovae. 
26
February 2016

WHAT IS CONTROLLING THE FRAGMENTATION PROCESS? A CASE OF STUDY: THE INFRARED DARK CLOUD G14.225-0.506


Start: 12:30h
Speaker: Gemma Busquet (ICE (CSIC-IEEC))
Place: Alberto Lobo Conference Room (ICE Building, UAB Campus)

Filaments are ubiquitous structures in star-forming complexes, which often intersect in high-density regions associated with star formation, know as hub-filament systems. Despite filaments having been recognized more than 30 years ago, the ubiquity of such structures in star-forming regions, which…
Start: 12:30h
Speaker: Gemma Busquet (ICE (CSIC-IEEC))
Place: Alberto Lobo Conference Room (ICE Building, UAB Campus)

Filaments are ubiquitous structures in star-forming complexes, which often intersect in high-density regions associated with star formation, know as hub-filament systems. Despite filaments having been recognized more than 30 years ago, the ubiquity of such structures in star-forming regions, which has been recently highlighted by Herschel programs, has brought special attention to their formation mechanism and their role in the star formation process. What is/are the physical agent(s) responsible of shaping the interstellar material into filamentary structures? How do they evolve? How filamentary structures fragment to form dense cores, and hence form stars? With the aim of investigating the origin and evolution of filamentary structures and their subsequent fragmentation we started an observational project with different telescopes towards the Infrared Dark Cloud G14.225-0.506, performing a multi-wavelength and multi-scale study of the cloud. I will present spectroscopic results of the dense gas material of the cloud, which unveil a network of filaments, constituting two hub-filament systems. I’ll show the main physical properties of these filaments and discuss the possible origin of such structures. The two hubs are the main sites of star formation activity in the cloud, and at small scales present a different level of fragmentation as revealed. I’ll discuss the interplay between turbulence, magnetic fields, density, and UV radiation feedback in the fragmentation process.
19
February 2016

The Sun as a laboratory for particle physics


Start: 12:30h
Speaker: Núria Vinyoles Vergés
Place: Sala Alberto Lobo - ICE (Campus UAB - Can Magrans S/N)

Stars have been widely used as laboratories for particle physics due to their extreme conditions not reproducible anywhere else. The presence of non-standard particles would change their structure and evolution through different channels (extra energy-loss, changes on the energy transport, ...) depending…
Start: 12:30h
Speaker: Núria Vinyoles Vergés
Place: Sala Alberto Lobo - ICE (Campus UAB - Can Magrans S/N)

Stars have been widely used as laboratories for particle physics due to their extreme conditions not reproducible anywhere else. The presence of non-standard particles would change their structure and evolution through different channels (extra energy-loss, changes on the energy transport, ...) depending on the nature of the particles considered. Those changes on the stars can be used to limit the parameter space of the particle properties.
The Sun is by far the best-known star. The solar structure, revealed by helioseismology and solar neutrinos, is well determined, and accurate solar models give us information about its past, present and future. For this reason, many studies have focused on using the Sun to test non-standard physics.
In this talk, I will introduce the Standard Solar Models, the main solar observations and how they can be used to give constrains on the properties of non-standard weakly interacting particles. In particular, I will present a new statistical analysis that combines the results of SSMs, helioseismology and solar neutrino observations to place upper limits on exotic particles. Some applications and results will be presented.
05
February 2016

The AAVSO as a Resource for Variable Star Research


Start: 12:30h
Speaker: Stella Kafka (American Association of Variable Star Observers; AAVSO)
Place: Sala de Conferencies Alberto Lobo

The AAVSO was formed in 1911 as a group of US-based amateur observers obtaining data in support of professional astronomy projects. Now, it has evolved into an International Organization with members and observers from both the professional and non-professional astronomical community, contributing photometry…
Start: 12:30h
Speaker: Stella Kafka (American Association of Variable Star Observers; AAVSO)
Place: Sala de Conferencies Alberto Lobo

The AAVSO was formed in 1911 as a group of US-based amateur observers obtaining data in support of professional astronomy projects. Now, it has evolved into an International Organization with members and observers from both the professional and non-professional astronomical community, contributing photometry to a public photometric database of about 22,000 variable objects, and using it for research projects. As such, the AAVSO’s main claim to fame is that it successfully engages backyard Astronomers, educators, students and professional astronomers in astronomical research. I will present the main aspects of the association and how it has evolved with time to become a premium resource for variable star researchers. I will also discuss the various means that the AAVSO is using to support cutting-edge variable star science, and how it engages its members in projects building a stronger international astronomical community.  
29
January 2016

The Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument


Start: 12:30h
Speaker: Francisco Javier Castander Serentill (Institut de Ciències de l'Espai (CSIC-IEEC))
Place: Alberto Lobo Conference Room (Campus UAB, Institut de Ciències de l'Espai, C/ de Can Magrans s/n)

The Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI) is a project to build a multifiber spectrograph, with the goal to obtain tens of millions of spectra to map the structure of the universe and study dark energy. The DESI instrument is a robotically-actuated, fiber-fed spectrograph capable of taking up…
Start: 12:30h
Speaker: Francisco Javier Castander Serentill (Institut de Ciències de l'Espai (CSIC-IEEC))
Place: Alberto Lobo Conference Room (Campus UAB, Institut de Ciències de l'Espai, C/ de Can Magrans s/n)

The Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument (DESI) is a project to build a multifiber spectrograph, with the goal to obtain tens of millions of spectra to map the structure of the universe and study dark energy. The DESI instrument is a robotically-actuated, fiber-fed spectrograph capable of taking up to 5,000 simultaneous spectra over a wavelength range from 360 nm to 980 nm. The fibers feed ten three-arm spectrographs with resolution R = λ/∆λ between 2000 and 5500, depending on wavelength. This powerful instrument will be installed at prime focus on the 4-m Mayall telescope in Kitt Peak, Arizona, along with a new optical corrector, which will provide a three-degree diameter field of view. The DESI collaboration will also deliver a spectroscopic pipeline and data management system to reduce and archive all data for eventual public use. Here, we will describe the contribution of our group that will provide the guiding and alignment sub-systems and the guiding software of the instrument.
Institute of Space Sciences (IEEC-CSIC)

Campus UAB, Carrer de Can Magrans, s/n
08193 Barcelona.
Phone: +34 93 737 9788
Email: ice@ice.csic.es
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An institute of the Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas

An institute of the Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas
Affiliated with the Institut d'Estudis Espacials de Catalunya

Affiliated with the Institut d'Estudis Espacials de Catalunya