Past Pizza Lunches

Number of entries: 153

10
April 2015

Artificial Intelligence in Autonomous Observatories.


Start: 12:30h
Speaker: Álvaro García Piquer
Place: Seminar Room S01-01 (ICE)

A very active field of research in Artificial Intelligence (AI) is the branch of automated planning and scheduling, which is focused on optimizing sequences of actions to be executed by robots or autonomous agents. Currently, automatic planning has been implemented in some robotic telescopes, but it…
Start: 12:30h
Speaker: Álvaro García Piquer
Place: Seminar Room S01-01 (ICE)

A very active field of research in Artificial Intelligence (AI) is the branch of automated planning and scheduling, which is focused on optimizing sequences of actions to be executed by robots or autonomous agents. Currently, automatic planning has been implemented in some robotic telescopes, but it is not yet widespread. This is because the space sector is very reluctant to implement technological changes that could increase the risk of expensive projects. However, operation of space missions and major observatories is becoming more complex and inaccessible to human operators in terms of planning procedures and decision making. Moreover, the maturity of the technology involved in the control process has increased, and now AI can be applied in many aspects of the control layer. Consequently, in the next decade the automatic planning of space missions and telescopes will contribute significantly to improve the scientific and technological exploitation of the existing and future facilities.   This talk will be divided in two main parts. The first one will be focused on introducing the fundamentals of AI in order to provide a general overview of this field. The second part will describe the process that we follow to apply automatic planning in autonomous observatories and will present some of the obtained results.
27
March 2015

Neutron Stars as Laboratory for Dense Matter


Start: 12:30h
Speaker: Laura Tolos (ICE)
Place: New Building (Seminar Room 1st floor)

Neutron stars are a unique laboratory for testing matter under extreme conditions. The ultimate goal is to understand neutron star observables, such as the mass, typical radius or rotation, in terms of a plausible scenario for its interior. In this talk I will report on the research we have carried…
Start: 12:30h
Speaker: Laura Tolos (ICE)
Place: New Building (Seminar Room 1st floor)

Neutron stars are a unique laboratory for testing matter under extreme conditions. The ultimate goal is to understand neutron star observables, such as the mass, typical radius or rotation, in terms of a plausible scenario for its interior. In this talk I will report on the research we have carried out over the past years to address different aspects of dense matter in the core of neutron stars by means of effective field theoretical approaches. On one hand, I will present the equation-of-state of hadronic dense matter, that has been constrained using results on heavy-ion collisions, and indicate the implications for the mass, radius and moment of inertia of neutrons stars. On the other hand, I will show different dissipative processes in neutron stars and the associated transport coefficients, such as the shear and bulk viscosities as well as the thermal conductivity. The knowledge of the viscosities is of great importance for understanding the dynamics of rotating neutron stars.
20
March 2015

Swinging between accretion and rotation power in binary millisecond pulsars


Start: 00:00h
Speaker: Alessandro Papitto (ICE CSIC-IEEC)
Place: ICE (Seminar Room S01-01)

Neutron stars in low mass X-ray binaries can be spun-up to millisecond rotational periods by accreting the matter transferred by a companion star. When the rate of mass transfer decreases at the end of this. Gyr-long X-ray bright phase, a radio pulsar powered by the rotation of the neutron star magnetic…
Start: 00:00h
Speaker: Alessandro Papitto (ICE CSIC-IEEC)
Place: ICE (Seminar Room S01-01)

Neutron stars in low mass X-ray binaries can be spun-up to millisecond rotational periods by accreting the matter transferred by a companion star. When the rate of mass transfer decreases at the end of this. Gyr-long X-ray bright phase, a radio pulsar powered by the rotation of the neutron star magnetic field turns on. Recently, the evolutionary link between these two classes of sources was finally proven by the XMM-Newton discovery of an accreting millisecond X-ray pulsar, previously seen as a rotation-powered radio pulsar. This source is the prototype of a new class of transitional systems that can alternate between accretion and rotation-powered states in response to variations of the rate of mass in-flow, on time scales as short as a couple of weeks. Observations of this and other similar systems indicate that transitions to the accretion phase not only involve bright X-ray outbursts, but also a fainter intermediate X-ray state, possibly caused by centrifugal inhibition of the matter in-fall. I will review recent results, as well as prospects of using these sources as test-beds of theories of the disk-magnetosphere interaction.
13
March 2015

METEORITES AND ASTEROIDS: REFLECTANCE AND RAMAN SPECTROSCOPIES.


Start: 12:30h
Speaker: Carles Eduard Moyano Cambero
Place: ICE New Building, campus UAB (ICE New Buidling, campus UAB)

Meteorites are mostly the only samples of Solar System bodies we are able to study on Earth laboratories. However, first of all we need to relate those objects. Finding the connections between the different classifications of meteorites and asteroids it’s essential to properly understand…
Start: 12:30h
Speaker: Carles Eduard Moyano Cambero
Place: ICE New Building, campus UAB (ICE New Buidling, campus UAB)

Meteorites are mostly the only samples of Solar System bodies we are able to study on Earth laboratories. However, first of all we need to relate those objects. Finding the connections between the different classifications of meteorites and asteroids it’s essential to properly understand what is being studied when analyzing a meteorite sample. In this talk you will see introduction to meteorite and asteroid classification, followed by short explanations of two of the techniques I’ve been using the most since I started my PhD, both to relate those objects and to characterize meteorites samples: Reflectance and Raman spectroscopies.
06
March 2015

Molecular clouds: 2014 polarized and depolarized highlights


Start: 00:00h
Speaker: Josep Miquel Girart Medina
Place: ICE

In this talk I will review the research highlights from our group obtained in 2014 from the observations of the dust polarization in different environments of the molecular interstellar medium. From parsec cloud scale down to solar system scales in  a protoplanetary disk.
Start: 00:00h
Speaker: Josep Miquel Girart Medina
Place: ICE

In this talk I will review the research highlights from our group obtained in 2014 from the observations of the dust polarization in different environments of the molecular interstellar medium. From parsec cloud scale down to solar system scales in  a protoplanetary disk.
27
February 2015

NGC 6334 V: Spectro-polarimetric observations towards a high-mass star forming region


Start: 12:30h
Speaker: Carmen Juárez Rodríguez (ICE (CSIC-IEEC))
Place: Seminar Room (Campus UAB, ICE Building, Carrer de Can Magrans s/n)

I will present a spectro-polarimetric study of the intermediate/high mass star forming region NGC 6334 V, a source part of the SMA legacy polarization project "Filaments, Star Formation and Magnetic Fields". I will show the kinematic analysis of the region at high spatial resolution derived from different…
Start: 12:30h
Speaker: Carmen Juárez Rodríguez (ICE (CSIC-IEEC))
Place: Seminar Room (Campus UAB, ICE Building, Carrer de Can Magrans s/n)

I will present a spectro-polarimetric study of the intermediate/high mass star forming region NGC 6334 V, a source part of the SMA legacy polarization project "Filaments, Star Formation and Magnetic Fields". I will show the kinematic analysis of the region at high spatial resolution derived from different density tracers (H13CO+, CH3HO, CH3OCHO, ...) and the magnetic field morphology derived from the polarized dust continuum emission. NGC 6334 V is a very complex region containing several sources, including a hot core region and several possible outflows but it shows an interesting correlation between the velocity gradient and the magnetic field orientation. I will also present a general view of the well accepted low-mass star formation model and some of the issues concerning the formation of massive stars. 
20
February 2015

Lithium discovered in a nova explosion


Start: 12:30h
Speaker: Margarita Hernanz Carbó
Place: ICE - New Building (New Buidling)

The origin of lithium - the third lightest element in the periodic table and the lightest solid element under standard conditions - is not yet well understood. Contrary to almost all the other elements, which are produced inside stars by nuclear reactions, lithium has a more complex origin. Lithium-7…
Start: 12:30h
Speaker: Margarita Hernanz Carbó
Place: ICE - New Building (New Buidling)

The origin of lithium - the third lightest element in the periodic table and the lightest solid element under standard conditions - is not yet well understood. Contrary to almost all the other elements, which are produced inside stars by nuclear reactions, lithium has a more complex origin. Lithium-7 is known to be synthesized during the Big Bang, together with H, He and a few other isotopes of the "light elements" (Li, Be and B). Reactions induced by energetic cosmic rays in the interstellar medium ("spallation" reactions) also produce it. And finally, there is an important contribution from old low-mass red giant stars and nova explosions. However, lithium had never been detected in novae, until very recently, as published in Nature this week. This discovery is highlighted in a News and Views paper in Nature this week, that I have authored. I will talk about the origin of elements in general and of lithium in particular, with especial emphasis on the recent discovery of radioactive Be-7 (which transforms into Li-7) in Nova Delphini 2013.
13
February 2015

ARTS: A new radio transient system at the WSRT


Start: 12:30h
Speaker: Roy Smits (ASTRON)
Place: Seminar Room S01-01 (ICE)

The Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope (WSRT) is an array of 14 25-meter dishes spread over an East-West baseline of 3 kilometers. It has been built and is kept operational by ASTRON, a Dutch institute for radio astronomy. In its 44 years of operations, it has kept The Netherlands in the world top…
Start: 12:30h
Speaker: Roy Smits (ASTRON)
Place: Seminar Room S01-01 (ICE)

The Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope (WSRT) is an array of 14 25-meter dishes spread over an East-West baseline of 3 kilometers. It has been built and is kept operational by ASTRON, a Dutch institute for radio astronomy. In its 44 years of operations, it has kept The Netherlands in the world top of radio astronomy. Over the years the telescope has been upgraded many times. Most recently, ASTRON has received a grant to upgrade the WSRT receivers using a new technology developed by ASTRON, called Apertif.   With the Apertif receivers the Field of View (FoV) of the telescopes will increase by a factor of 37, making the WSRT a powerful survey instrument. The wide FoV makes the telescope also sensitive to detecting rare radio bursts, such as RRATS and FRB's.   To allow for a deep search of pulsars and to optimize the detection of radio bursts, an advanced backend called ARTS (Apertif Radio Transient System) is being designed to handle the high data-rates and allow for different modes of observation, including real-time coherent dedispersion.
06
February 2015

The exotic behaviour of the Crab pulsar: barely a "standard" candle


Start: 12:30h
Speaker: Emma de Ona Wilhelmi (ICE CSIC-IEEC)
Place: Seminar Room S01-01 (ICE NEW BUILDING!!!)

The last six years witness several major revisions of our knowledge about the Crab pulsar, the central engine of the remnant of the supernova explosion occurred in 1054 AD. The consensus scenario has been challenged for the origin of the high-energy pulsed emission with the discovery of a very-high-energy…
Start: 12:30h
Speaker: Emma de Ona Wilhelmi (ICE CSIC-IEEC)
Place: Seminar Room S01-01 (ICE NEW BUILDING!!!)

The last six years witness several major revisions of our knowledge about the Crab pulsar, the central engine of the remnant of the supernova explosion occurred in 1054 AD. The consensus scenario has been challenged for the origin of the high-energy pulsed emission with the discovery of a very-high-energy power law tail extending up to 400 GeV. This is above the expected spectral cut off of a few GeV. New measurements obtained by the MAGIC collaboration, with more than 300 hours of observations, extend the coverage of the energy spectrum of the Crab pulsar to much higher energies. I will discuss these results on the context of the different explanations put forward to understand the gamma-ray emission from the pulsar.
23
January 2015

The Star Formation Rate


Start: 12:30h
Speaker: Paolo Padoan (ICREA & ICC-IEEC)
Place: UAB Room C5 /012

Our view of the structure and dynamics of molecular clouds has experienced a major transformation in the last two decades, driven partly by observations and partly by computational modeling. We have moved from a quasi-static picture of the evolution of molecular clouds, to a very dynamic scenario where…
Start: 12:30h
Speaker: Paolo Padoan (ICREA & ICC-IEEC)
Place: UAB Room C5 /012

Our view of the structure and dynamics of molecular clouds has experienced a major transformation in the last two decades, driven partly by observations and partly by computational modeling. We have moved from a quasi-static picture of the evolution of molecular clouds, to a very dynamic scenario where the origin of stars is intimately coupled to the origin and fragmentation of molecular clouds. Despite the remaining uncertainties about the detailed evolution of individual protostars, a statistical description of the star formation process on the scale of molecular clouds is now possible and can be verified and refined through numerical experiments and observational data. I will review the basic ideas of the turbulent fragmentation scenario, the foundations of the analytical models that predict the star formation rate in molecular clouds, and the most important results of recent numerical studies that have been carried out to test those models. I will argue that the most important physical parameters controlling the SFR have been identified, so the SFR should no longer be a major uncertainty in modeling the formation and evolution of Galaxies.
Institute of Space Sciences (IEEC-CSIC)

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08193 Barcelona.
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An institute of the Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas

An institute of the Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas
Affiliated with the Institut d'Estudis Espacials de Catalunya

Affiliated with the Institut d'Estudis Espacials de Catalunya