Finalized PhD theses

Número de entradas: 80

Physico-chemical properties of chondritic meteorites: clues on the origin and evolution of their parent bodies

Estado: defended (06/07/2018)
Estudiante: Moyano Cambero, C.E.
Supervisada por: Josep M. Trigo-Rodríguez
Universidad: Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona

Durant aquesta tesi es pretén aprofundir en les propietats físiques, mineralògiques i reflectives de petits asteroides no diferenciats, així com en el seu procés de formació, a través de mostres de meteorits, particularment de les anomenades condrites carbonàcies. Primer de tot es dedicarà part de la tesi a adquirir el bagatge necessari, que inclou els següents punts: - El disc protoplanetary: zones de formació d’asteroides - Descripció de les classes d’asteroides: classes espectrals - Asteroides diferenciats contra no diferenciats: mineralogia distintiva - Grups de meteorits i la seva relació amb asteroides: comparació espectral entre espectres remots i de laboratori. Diferències principals - Processos físics en funcionament sobre les superfícies d’asteroides: alteració espacial (excavació de cràters, bretxació, implantació elemental, rastres de rajos còsmics...) - Evolució col·lisional: propietats de les superfícies cobertes de regòlit (inèrcia tèrmica, conductivitat, etc.) - Comparació d’asteroides i meteorits: mineralogia i química principal D’altra banda les mostres s’analitzaran mitjançant tècniques molt variades d’anàlisi i processat de dades. Objectius: - Obtenir noves pistes sobre els processos de formació d’asteroides i l’origen dels meteorits per mitjà de la comparació dels espectres de reflexió d’ambdós tipus d’objectes. - Obtenir informació de la història evolutiva dels asteroides a través dels anàlisis mineralògics i de la química principal. - Estudiar els processos físics que tenen lloc a les superfícies d’asteroides i els mecanismes que envien els meteorits fins la Terra.
Undifferentiated meteorites are the building blocks of undifferentiated bodies, comprising most of the Solar System objects. They are characterized by bearing refractory particles and igneous glassy spherules, the last ones being called chondrules. These rocks, so-called chondrites from the omnipresent…
Estado: defended (06/07/2018)
Estudiante: Moyano Cambero, C.E.
Supervisada por: Josep M. Trigo-Rodríguez
Universidad: Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona

Undifferentiated meteorites are the building blocks of undifferentiated bodies, comprising most of the Solar System objects. They are characterized by bearing refractory particles and igneous glassy spherules, the last ones being called chondrules. These rocks, so-called chondrites from the omnipresent chondrules that they contain, are often called accretionary or primordial materials. Such components were preserved in bodies of few hundred kilometers in diameter, being represented by small asteroids or comets. Those bodies never experienced chemical segregation and consequently are the legacy of the materials that formed the protoplanetary disk around the Sun about 4.6 Gyrs ago. By studying undifferentiated meteorites arrived from different parent bodies we can get clues on the physico-chemical processes at work in our planetary system over the eons. This thesis starts from the study of these free-delivered samples to gain insight into the properties of small bodies, their volatile content and evolution over time. The chondrites contain clues exhibiting complex accretionary histories in asteroids and comets. We have selected some of these chondrites to discuss the main physical processes affecting chondritic bodies since their consolidation: thermal metamorphism and aqueous alteration. Finally, as an application, we discuss aqueous alteration processes in one of the most primitive Martian meteorites: Allan Hills 84001 orthopyroxenite. By studying different meteorites, is expected to accomplish another goal of this Ph.D. thesis: understanding the pathways and influence of water contained in chondritic meteorites to increase the volatile content of terrestrial planets. Understanding the pathways of water in the enrichment in volatiles of planetary bodies is a first step to understand how materials from the outer protoplanetary disk reached planetary embryos, consolidated from dry planetesimals available in the inner disk, into water bearing planetary bodies like Mars or Earth.
 

Resonance dynamics in hot and dense nuclear matter

Estado: defended (18/12/2017)
Estudiante: Ilner, A.
Supervisada por: Laura Tolos ; Bratkovskaya, E.

Analysis of the strange hadrons in heavy-ion collisions
Resonance dynamics in hot and dense nuclear matter
Estado: defended (18/12/2017)
Estudiante: Ilner, A.
Supervisada por: Laura Tolos ; Bratkovskaya, E.

Resonance dynamics in hot and dense nuclear matter

High energy emission from classical and recurrent novae

Estado: defended (09/10/2017)
Estudiante: Laura Delgado
Supervisada por: Margarita Hernanz
Universidad: Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona

In recent years, several nova explosions - eight classical novae and two symbiotic recurrent novae - have been detected by Fermi/LAT at E>100 MeV. In most cases, this emission has been observed early after the explosion, around the optical maximum, and for a short period of time. The high-energy gamma-ray…
Estado: defended (09/10/2017)
Estudiante: Laura Delgado
Supervisada por: Margarita Hernanz
Universidad: Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona

In recent years, several nova explosions - eight classical novae and two symbiotic recurrent novae - have been detected by Fermi/LAT at E>100 MeV. In most cases, this emission has been observed early after the explosion, around the optical maximum, and for a short period of time. The high-energy gamma-ray emission is a consequence of neutral pion decay and/or Inverse Compton, which are related to particle (p and e-) acceleration in the strong shock between the nova ejecta and the circumstellar matter. RS Ophiuchi (2006) was the first nova for which particle acceleration was predicted. This prediction showed that the blast wave decelerated faster than expected as a consequence of the acceleration of particles in the shock and their escape.  The aim of this thesis is to study the evolution of the symbiotic recurrent novae the first days after the outburst through a multiwavelength study, mainly X-ray emission, and its relation with the acceleration of particles. In particular, we present a comprehensive multiwavelength study of the last outburst of RS Oph and V745 Sco.
RS Oph is a recurrent nova in a symbiotic system composed of a white dwarf and a red giant with a recurrence period of ~21 years. In this work, we present a new analysis of XMM-Newton's observations of RS Oph early after its 2006 outburst both with RGS and EPIC-MOS. We compare these results with those obtained for RXTE, Swift and Chandra observations, and previous studies of RGS observations. The evolution of the radio and IR emissions during the first days after the outburst was studied. The multiwavelength studies allow us to get a global picture of the shocked plasma and its relationship with the particle acceleration.

V745 Sco is also a symbiotic recurrent nova with a recurrence period of ~25 years. We present the analysis of the Swift/XRT observations of V745 Sco early after its 2014 outburst simultaneous to Fermi detection. We combine our results with Chandra and NuStar observations to get a global picture of the evolution of the nova ejecta. As in RS Oph we compiled all the radio and IR information about V745 Sco the first days after the explosion. Finally, particle acceleration in V745 Sco can be explained by a diffusive shock model at the blast wave and the subsequent escape of the very high-energy particles as in RS Oph.

With the study of these two novae, and its comparison, we demonstrate common features in the early evolution of a nova remnant and their relationship with particle acceleration in the symbiotic recurrent novae. Multiwavelength results provide new insights into the evolution of the shocked plasma and the interaction with the circumstellar material, being a powerful tool to understand the gamma-ray emission. 

The accretion flow onto white dwarfs and its X-ray emission properties

Estado: defended (21/09/2017)
Estudiante: Nataly Ospina
Supervisada por: Margarita Hernanz
Universidad: Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona

Explosive burning of hydrogen on top of accreting white dwarfs causes nova outbursts.
The binary system where classical novae occur is a cataclysmic variable whereas, some,
recurrent novae occur in symbiotic binaries. The analysis of the X-ray emission from
novae in their post outburst stages provides important information about the nova explosion
mechanism and the reestablishment of accretion. In some cases, like V2487 Oph
1998, observations with XMM-Newton a few years after outburst indicate that accretion
has been re-established and its X-ray spectra look like those of magnetic cataclysmic variables,
of the intermediate polar class.
In this work a numerical model of accretion flow onto magnetic white dwarfs and their
corresponding X-ray emission has been developed to be compared with observations
of post outburst novae where accretion is active again. Distributions of the different
physical quantities that describe the emission region have been obtained for different
masses of white dwarf and different accretion rates. The associated X-ray spectrum has
been also obtained with the main objective of studying accretion in the emission region.
These results have been applied to the nova V2487 Oph 1998 with the aim to obtain the
mass of the white dwarf since this nova has been identified as a recurrent nova, with
a previous eruption in 1900, and therefore as a good candidate for a type Ia Supernova
progenitor.
Explosive burning of hydrogen on top of accreting white dwarfs causes nova outbursts. The binary system where classical novae occur is a cataclysmic variable whereas, some, recurrent novae occur in symbiotic binaries. The analysis of the X-ray emission from novae in their post outburst stages provides…
Estado: defended (21/09/2017)
Estudiante: Nataly Ospina
Supervisada por: Margarita Hernanz
Universidad: Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona

Explosive burning of hydrogen on top of accreting white dwarfs causes nova outbursts.
The binary system where classical novae occur is a cataclysmic variable whereas, some,
recurrent novae occur in symbiotic binaries. The analysis of the X-ray emission from
novae in their post outburst stages provides important information about the nova explosion
mechanism and the reestablishment of accretion. In some cases, like V2487 Oph
1998, observations with XMM-Newton a few years after outburst indicate that accretion
has been re-established and its X-ray spectra look like those of magnetic cataclysmic variables,
of the intermediate polar class.
In this work a numerical model of accretion flow onto magnetic white dwarfs and their
corresponding X-ray emission has been developed to be compared with observations
of post outburst novae where accretion is active again. Distributions of the different
physical quantities that describe the emission region have been obtained for different
masses of white dwarf and different accretion rates. The associated X-ray spectrum has
been also obtained with the main objective of studying accretion in the emission region.
These results have been applied to the nova V2487 Oph 1998 with the aim to obtain the
mass of the white dwarf since this nova has been identified as a recurrent nova, with
a previous eruption in 1900, and therefore as a good candidate for a type Ia Supernova
progenitor.

Numerical Relativity studies in Anti-de Sitter spacetimes: Gravitational Collapse and the AdS/CFT correspondence

Estado: defended (12/07/2017)
Estudiante: Santos-Oliván, Daniel
Supervisada por: Carlos Sopuerta
Universidad: Universitat de Barcelona

Numerical Relativity is a necessary tool to explore the non-linear strong-field dynamics involved in the coalescence and merger of compact binaries (like in black hole (BH) binaries, double neutron star (NS) binaries, or BH-NS binaries). On the other hard, there is high energy phenomena, like ultra-relativistic collisions at particle accelerators or the gauge-gravity duality, where numerical relativity can be a crucial tool for making progress. The main goal of this thesis is to develop new tools in Numerical Relativity to be applied to these areas of research.
In this thesis we study three different problems using Numerical Relativity on asymptotically Anti-de Sitter (AdS) spacetimes. The first is our research on the gravitational collapse of massless scalar fields on asymptotically AdS spacetimes.  We have developed a new method that combines two different…
Estado: defended (12/07/2017)
Estudiante: Santos-Oliván, Daniel
Supervisada por: Carlos Sopuerta
Universidad: Universitat de Barcelona

In this thesis we study three different problems using Numerical Relativity on asymptotically Anti-de Sitter (AdS) spacetimes. The first is our research on the gravitational collapse of massless scalar fields on asymptotically AdS spacetimes.  We have developed a new method that combines two different formulations of the Einstein Field Equations to get closer and with more accuracy to the collapse. We have numerical evidence that in the separation of the branches there is a universal power law in the mass of the formed apparent horizons for subcritical configurations in addition to the one for supercritical ones. This new power law confirms that there is a gap in the mass of the apparent horizon. In the second part, we introduce a shock waves model in AdS to study the far-from-equilibrium regime in the heavy-ion collisions through the holographic correspondence in a non-conformal theory. In the models used until now, the shock waves correspond to conformal gauge theories while QCD is not conformal. In order to get closer to a description of the actual physical collisions we present the first shock waves collision in a nonconformal theory. With this, we show how the non-conformality increases the hydrodynamisation time and also that this can happen before the equation of state is fulfilled. In the last part, we propose the use of spectral methods for high precision computations. The exponential convergence of spectral methods can approximate functions with very high accuracy with few hundred terms in our spectral expansion while in other numerical methods it would be a few orders of magnitude larger. This makes spectral methods very attractive because they facilitate the accessibility to very small error simulations, removes the bottleneck of the memory demand and also help in the computational speed because fewer points are needed for the computation. We have tested this idea with the ANETO library for simulations in AdS spacetimes and the gravitational collapse in an asymptotically flat spacetime with very promising results. This library has been developed as a direct result of this thesis and that can be downloaded as Free Software.

Numerical relativity studies in Anti-de Sitter spacetimes: Gravitational Collapse and the AdS/CFT correspondence

Estado: defended (12/07/2017)
Estudiante: Daniel Santos Olivan
Supervisada por: Carlos Fernandez Sopuerta
Universidad: Universitat de Barcelona

In this thesis, we study three different problems using Numerical Relativity on asymptotically Anti-de Sitter (AdS) spacetimes. The first is our research on the gravitational collapse of massless scalar fields on asymptotically AdS spacetimes. We have developed a new method that combines two different…
Estado: defended (12/07/2017)
Estudiante: Daniel Santos Olivan
Supervisada por: Carlos Fernandez Sopuerta
Universidad: Universitat de Barcelona

In this thesis, we study three different problems using Numerical Relativity on asymptotically Anti-de Sitter (AdS) spacetimes.

The first is our research on the gravitational collapse of massless scalar fields on asymptotically AdS spacetimes. We have developed a new method that combines two different formulations of the Einstein Field Equations to get closer and with more accuracy to the collapse. We have numerical evidence that in the separation of the branches there is a universal power law in the mass of the formed apparent horizons for subcritical configurations in addition to the one for supercritical ones. This new power law confirms that there is a gap in the mass of the apparent horizon.

In the second part, we introduce a shock waves model in AdS to study the far-from-equilibrium regime in the heavy ion collisions through the holographic correspondence in a non-conformal theory. In the models used until now, the shock waves correspond to conformal gauge theories while QCD is not conformal. In order to get closer to a description of the actual physical collisions, we present the first shock waves collision in a non-conformal theory. With this, we show how the non-conformality increases the hydrodynamisation time and also that this can happen before the equation of state is fulfilled.

In the last part, we propose the use of spectral methods for high precision computations. The exponential convergence of spectral methods can approximate functions with very high accuracy with few hundred terms in our spectral expansion while in other numerical methods it would be a few orders of magnitude larger. This makes spectral methods very attractive because they facilitate the accessibility to very small error simulations, removes the bottleneck of the memory demand and also help in the computational speed because fewer points are needed for the computation. We have tested this idea with the ANETO library for simulations in AdS spacetimes and the gravitational collapse in an asymptotically flat spacetime with very promising results. This library has been developed as a direct result of this thesis and that can be downloaded as Free Software.

Physico-chemical properties of chondritic meteorites: clues on the origin and evolution of their parent bodies

Estado: defended (06/07/2017)
Estudiante: Carles Eduard Moyano Cambero
Supervisada por: Josep Maria Trigo Rodríguez
Universidad: Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona

In the first million years of the solar nebula, aggregation and melting of dust and presolar grains triggered the formation of the first solid materials of the Solar System. Among them, a variety of igneous glassy spherules known as chondrules can be found. These materials progressively aggregated…
Estado: defended (06/07/2017)
Estudiante: Carles Eduard Moyano Cambero
Supervisada por: Josep Maria Trigo Rodríguez
Universidad: Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona


In the first million years of the solar nebula, aggregation and melting of dust and presolar grains triggered the formation of the first solid materials of the Solar System. Among them, a variety of igneous glassy spherules known as chondrules can be found. These materials progressively aggregated together to form larger bodies, such as asteroids, planetesimals, and finally planets. Those that did not experience chemical segregation due to heating and melting of their materials, called undifferentiated bodies, still conserve some very primordial materials of the Solar System. The meteorites coming from these objects, known as chondrites from the chondrules that they contain, are studied in this thesis with a multidisciplinary approach, using several instrumental techniques to analyze their physico-chemical properties. Since retrieving samples directly from asteroids is a very complex concept, the terrestrial collections of meteorites become an available source of samples from these bodies. The information obtained from chondrites can be extrapolated to better understand the composition, structure, and physical properties of asteroids. Thus, the study of chondrites can be very helpful to practical applications such as the deflection through solid projectiles of asteroids that suppose a potential thread to life on Earth.

Collapse scenarios in magnetized star-forming regions

Estado: defended (26/06/2017)
Estudiante: Juárez-Rodríguez, Carmen
Supervisada por: Josep Miquel Girart Medina; Palau, A.
Universidad: Universitat de Barcelona

Star-forming regions are located at the densest parts of molecular clouds. To be able to observe the embedded dense cores, long-wavelength high-angular resolution observations are needed. In this work we have used observational data from the Plateau de Bure (PdBI) and the Submillimeter Array (SMA) radio-interferometers.…
Estado: defended (26/06/2017)
Estudiante: Juárez-Rodríguez, Carmen
Supervisada por: Josep Miquel Girart Medina; Palau, A.
Universidad: Universitat de Barcelona

Star-forming regions are located at the densest parts of molecular clouds. To be able to observe the embedded dense cores, long-wavelength high-angular resolution observations are needed. In this work we have used observational data from the Plateau de Bure (PdBI) and the Submillimeter Array (SMA) radio-interferometers. In addition, we have used the single-dish IRAM 30m telescope which recovers extended emission. From the obtained data we have studied the thermal dust continuum emission and the molecular line emission from their rotational electronic transitions. The dust continuum emission allows us to study the structure and physical properties of the cores such as mass, column density, etc. As the dust continuum emission is polarized, it also provides magnetic field information. On the other hand, the molecular line emission provides the kinematic information of the gas; we can also derive the column density, mass and other properties associated to the gas. 
To carry out the goal of this thesis we have studied three regions in different physical and chemical conditions: an isolated pre-stellar core in a quiescent magnetized environment in the Pipe nebula, a high-mass star-forming region in a more evolved evolutionary state called NGC 6334 V, and a highly-fragmented lower-mass region called L1287. 

Collapse scenarios in magnetized star-forming regions

Estado: defended (26/06/2017)
Estudiante: Carmen Juárez Rodríguez
Supervisada por: Josep M. Girart; Aina Palau
Universidad: Universitat de Barcelona

Turbulence, magnetic fields and gravity driven flows are important for the formation of new stars. Although magnetic fields have been proven to be important in the formation of stars, only a few works have been done combining magnetic field and kinematic information.  Such studies are important to analyze…
Estado: defended (26/06/2017)
Estudiante: Carmen Juárez Rodríguez
Supervisada por: Josep M. Girart; Aina Palau
Universidad: Universitat de Barcelona

Turbulence, magnetic fields and gravity driven flows are important for the formation of new stars. Although magnetic fields have been proven to be important in the formation of stars, only a few works have been done combining magnetic field and kinematic information.  Such studies are important to analyze both gravity and gas dynamics and be able to compare them with the magnetic field. In this thesis we will combine dust polarization studies with kinematic analysis towards different star-forming regions. The aim of this thesis has been to study the physical properties of dense cores (at scales < 0.1 pc) from molecular line and dust emission, and to study the role of the magnetic field in their dynamic evolution. For this, we have used millimeter and submillimeter observational data.
 
The studies have been performed towards 3 different star-forming regions. The pre-stellar core FeSt 1-457, located in an isolated and magnetized environment in the Pipe nebula. The high-mass star-forming region NGC6334V, in a more advanced evolutionary state and in an environment surrounded by other massive star-forming regions. And L1287, a lower-mass region but with similar characteristics to NGC6334V, with presence of high-velocity gas and several centimeter and infrared sources.
 
The studies of the pre-stellar core FeSt1-457 and the massive region NGC6334V, show how the magnetic field has been overcome by gravity and is not enough to avoid the gravitational collapse. In addition, NGC6334V and the lower-mass region L1287 present very similar scenarios with the material converging from large scales (~0.1 pc) to the potential wells of both regions at smaller scales (~0.02 pc) through two dense gas flows separated by 2-3 km/s. In a similar scenario, FeSt1-457 is located just in the region where two dense gas structures, separated by 3 km/s, appear to converge.

Precipitation measurements with polarimetric GNSS Radio Occultations

Estado: defended (22/06/2017)
Estudiante: Ramon Padullés Rulló
Supervisada por: Estel Cardellach Galí
Universidad: Universitat de Barcelona

PhD Thesis started at the end of 2012
In 2009, the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation approved a proposal to modify the Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver and to allocate a Polarimetric (Pol) Radio Occultation (RO) antenna in the Spanish PAZ satellite. PAZ became an opportunity to test the new Pol-RO concept, which aims…
Estado: defended (22/06/2017)
Estudiante: Ramon Padullés Rulló
Supervisada por: Estel Cardellach Galí
Universidad: Universitat de Barcelona

In 2009, the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation approved a proposal to modify the Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver and to allocate a Polarimetric
(Pol) Radio Occultation (RO) antenna in the Spanish PAZ satellite. PAZ became an opportunity to test the new Pol-RO concept, which aims to capture ROs using a
two orthogonal linear polarization antenna. The experiment has been named Radio Occultations and Heavy Precipitation with PAZ (ROHP-PAZ). The objective is to
measure the phase difference between the horizontal and the vertical components of the incoming electromagnetic field that is induced by heavy precipitation flattened
raindrops. This effect, widely studied in the weather radar community, will be measured from space using GNSS signals for the first time with PAZ, which is
planned to be launched in 2017 (date yet to be confirmed).

The main objective of this new concept is to enhance the RO capabilities by providing vertical precipitation information along with the current standard RO
thermodynamic products (i. e. temperature, pressure and moisture). Until now, no other observing system has been able to provide simultaneous thermodynamic and
precipitation information under extreme conditions. The high vertical resolution, global coverage and all-weather capability properties of the RO observations com-
bined with vertical indication of precipitation intensity can be of great value for heavy rain characterization, and therefore for climate and weather forecasting and
research.

Within this context, the theoretical background for the technique, its feasibility and applications have been assessed in this dissertation. The theoretical basis
has been developed combining electromagnetic propagation theory and cloud and precipitation microphysics. Very detailed forward scattering simulations at L-band
have been obtained in order to relate the microphysical parameters with the expected Pol-RO observables. Feasibility has been addressed using coincident (in
space and time) RO profiles and space-based precipitation observations. Such simultaneous observations allow for the characterization of actual RO measurements
according to the coincident precipitation information, and allow us to obtain, for example, the noise level under precipitating scenarios. Finally, the applications have
been investigated through realistic end-to-end simulations of the Pol-RO observations, which provide the anticipated Pol-RO products for different precipitation
situations, regions, and seasons.

Before the launch of the satellite, a field campaign has been conducted with the aim of starting the characterization of the polarimetric measurements. The engi-
neering model of the PAZ antenna was placed at the top of a mountain peak in order to capture, for the first time, linear polarimetric GNSS signals at low graz-
ing angles. Although the geometry and the scenario are different from those that PAZ will be studying from space, this campaign has been useful to start identifying
the hardware internal effects and unexpected precipitation features that will affect the Pol-RO observations. These effects have been incorporated into the simulations,
providing valuable feedback to obtain more realistic Pol-RO products.

These exercises yielded several relevant results. The noise level analysis from actual RO observations sensing precipitation scenarios has allowed us to set a de-
tectability threshold for the technique, indicating that a high percentage of moderate to heavy precipitation events will be detected with PAZ. Nevertheless, the inte-
grated nature of the Pol-RO observable does not allow us to distinguish between the contributions from the rain’s intensity and extension, leaving an ambiguity in the
provided product. In an attempt to solve such ambiguity, a tomographic approach has been proposed, which has yielded promising theoretical results. Moreover, it
has been shown how the Pol-RO observables can be linked to physical precipitation parameters, such as the along-ray averaged rain rate, in a probabilistic way.
The end-to-end simulation has also revealed that the ionosphere will induce a non-negligible depolarization that will require calibration.

Besides providing feedback for the simulations, the data from the field campaign have also shown the first observational evidence that precipitation and other hy-
drometeors have a noticeable effect on the GNSS polarimetric signals. These effects have been compared with the simulations, showing agreement within an order of
magnitude. The collocated data has also been used to show the potential applications of Pol-ROs products. Comparison of model outputs with RO retrievals, in the presence of heavy rain, has shown discrepancies that will need further investigation, and Pol-RO data appears to be a well-fitted dataset for such studies.
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