News & Press releases

Number of entries: 119

22
February 2021

ICE RESEARCHERS OBSERVE AN UV AND OPTICAL SIGNAL THAT CHALLENGES PULSAR MODELS


Francesco Coti Zelati and Diego F. Torres have participated in the discovery
Artist's impression of an X-ray bright pulsar in a binary system.
ESA
Scientists present the first-ever detection of pulsations at optical and ultraviolet wavelengths from a millisecond pulsar in an X-ray binary system during an accretion phase. ICE's Francesco Coti Zelati and Diego F. Torres have participated in the discovery, led by researchers from the Italian National Institute of Astrophysics and based on observations made with the Galileo National Telescope in La Palma and with the Hubble Space Telescope.

February 22, 2021
 
The system is called SAX J1808.4-3658. It is formed by a neutron star (a rapidly gyrating, dense object) and a small star. The neutron star rotates very rapidly, causing the emission to appear pulsating, like the light of a lighthouse. In fact, the neutron star rotates faster than most pulsars.
 
The pulsar is in a binary system, that is, it orbits alongside another star from which it regularly removes matter.  Moreover, it is an unstable celestial object, since it alternates phases of "quiescence" with periods of "activity" every 3 or 4 years. The most recent explosion, the ninth since its discovery in 1996, was recorded between August and September 2019. ICE researchers assert that, at the time of the observations at optical and ultraviolet wavelengths during this last explosion, the pulsar was surrounded by an accretion disc, displayed pulsations in the X-rays and had a high brightness, suggesting that mass accretion onto the neutron star was ongoing.
 
To date, about twenty systems similar to SAX J1808.4-3658 are known. Until this observation, no pulses in the UV band had been observed from pulsars in binary systems. As per the optical band, the pulses had only been seen in 5 isolated pulsars and in a single binary system.
 
The discovery has been published in the journal Nature Astronomy under the title “Optical and ultraviolet pulsed emission from an accreting millisecond pulsar”, and tests the theoretical models that describe the behavior of pulsars in binary systems. According to Coti Zelati and Torres, current accretion models fail to account for the luminosity of both the optical and ultraviolet pulsations that they detected, which are instead more likely driven by processes taking place in the magnetosphere of the neutron star or just outside of it.
 
In this context, this discovery demonstrates that acceleration of charged particles up to extremely high speeds can take place in the magnetosphere of a neutron star even when the latter is engulfed with accreting matter. Therefore, the results of the study shed new light on the properties of the magnetosphere and its interaction with accreting matter and, more in general, on the physics of millisecond pulsars in binary systems.
 
This study provides a novel approach to investigate accreting neutron stars in binary systems: it opens up a new perspective in searches for fast pulsations at optical and ultraviolet wavelengths from many other weakly-magnetic, accreting neutron stars in binary systems from which pulsations have never been detected at other wavelengths, despite very extensive studies. In fact, thanks to the very large photon rates and the possibility to exploit the throughput of large optical telescopes, it will be possible to attain a much higher sensitivity at optical and UV wavelengths than in the X-ray band. In this sense, neutron stars accreting at very high rates are especially important, since the detection of pulsations from them and the precise determination of their orbit would permit to increase drastically the sensitivity of searches for gravitational waves, which are expected from these systems. This would turn these neutron stars into unrivalled laboratories to study the physics of matter at supra-nuclear density and in the presence of ultra-strong magnetic fields.

The detection of optical pulsations was achieved in observations with the Silicon Fast Astronomical Photometer (SiFAP2) mounted at the Galileo National Telescope (TNG) at the Roque de los Muchachos Observatory on the island of La Palma (Canary Islands). This detection was possible thanks to the unique capabilities of this instrument, which is able to tag the time of arrival of individual photons at optical wavelengths with an accuracy of a few microseconds up to count rates as large as a few million counts every second.
 
The study, published in the journal Nature Astronomy, is entitled “Optical and ultraviolet pulsed emission from an accreting millisecond pulsar”, by F. Ambrosino, A. Miraval Zanon, A. Papitto, F. Coti Zelati, S. Campana, P. D'Avanzo , L. Stella, T. Di Salvo, L. Burderi, P. Casella, A. Sanna, D. de Martino, M. Cadelano, A. Ghedina, F. Leone, F. Meddi, P. Cretaro, MC Baglio, E. Poretti, RP Mignani, DF Torres, GL Israel, M. Cecconi, DM Russell, MD Gonzalez Gomez, AL Riverol Rodriguez, H. Perez Ventura, M. Hernandez Diaz, JJ San Juan, DM Bramich, and F. Lewis. The article is available here.
 
 
Contacts
 
ICE Communication Office
Bellaterra, Spain
Paula Talero & Alba Calejero
E-mail: outreach@ice.csic.es
 
INAF Press
Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica
Marco Galliani, 335 1778428
ufficiostampa@inaf.it
 
Lead researchers at ICE
Bellaterra, Spain
 
Francesco Coti Zelati: cotizelati@ice.csic.es
Diego F. Torres: dtorres@ice.csic.es
 
Institute of Space Studies of Catalonia (IEEC)
Institute of Space Sciences (ICE-CSIC)
 
Press Release created by the ICE Communication Office in collaboration with INAF.
11
February 2021

Female researchers give online talks to students on the International Day of Women and Girls in Science


International Day of Women and Girls in Science
Female researchers give online talks to students on the International Day of Women and Girls in Science
To commemorate the International Day of Women and Girls in Science, five female researchers from the Institute of Space Sciences will be part of the 100tífiques initiative organised by the Catalan Foundation for Research and Innovation (FCRi) and the Barcelona Institute of Science and Technology (BIST). They will give online talks to primary and secondary school students in Catalonia about the work of a scientist and their experience as women in the field of science and research.
 
The female researchers who will participate in this initiative on February 11th are:
 
Cristina Manuel Hidalgo, a theoretical physicist. She is especially interested in the “condensed matter of the strong (or quantum chomodynamics) interactions” and she focuses on finding their signatures in astrophysical and cosmological scenarios. Her research lines are: quantum chromodynamics under extreme conditions; quark matter, and signatures in compact stars; quark-gluon plasma; and astroparticle.
 
Nanda Rea has a PhD in Astrophysics on neutron stars and black holes. She comes from Italy and has recently collaborated with Catalan Foundation for Research and Innovation (FCRi) in the initiative #Path2Integrity toward an ethical innovation path in research. She is the main researcher of a Horizon 2020 COST action on neutron stars. She has focused on magnetars, neutron stars with high speed of rotation and extremely strong magnetic fields and she discovered the first magnetar with a weak magnetic field. Last year she received an award in Science and Engineering from Banco Sabadell Foundation and an award from the Royal Academy of Sciences of Spain Foundation for Young Female Scientific Talent in 2019, among other awards.
 
Vanessa Graber, originally from Germany, is a theoretical astrophysicist and a senior postdoctoral researcher. She is a member of the European COST Action network PHAROS, which focuses on the multi-messenger physics and astrophysics of neutron stars. Her work is mainly focused on two research areas: the interface between astrophysics and condensed matter physics and the population synthesis of isolated neutron stars.
She currently works with Nanda Rea on the newly funded ERC project Magnesia, that focuses on providing a census of galactic magnetars: “Census of magnetars: the impact of highly magnetic neutron stars in the explosive and transitory universe”.
 
Helena Domínguez Sánchez is a research astronomer and post-doctoral fellow at ICE. Her work focuses on galaxy formation and evolution from an observational point of view. Her aim is to understand how and why the properties of galaxies have changed across the history of the Universe. During the last few years, she developed expertise in machine learning and she is pioneering the use of deep learning techniques in astronomy.

Laura Tolós is a physicist and researcher focused on the theoretical study of matter under conditions of extreme temperatura or density, such as those that can be observed in stellar objects, such as neutron stars. She is involved in the scientific design of the eXTP X-ray satellite, together with Nanda Rea, among other researchers.

In addition, next February 18th researcher Mar Mezcua will be one of the 75 astrophysicists available to talk about her research and her experience as a woman in science within the initiative "Chat with an astronomer" organised by the Women and Astronomy commission of the Spanish Astronomical Society (SEA) and sponsored by the Varela López Family in memory of Angelines and Arturo, and by the PureChat platform. Mar Mezcua is a postdoctoral researcher who studies how supermassive black holes form and grow and how this growth affects the galaxy itself.
 
15
January 2021

ICE researchers collaborate in the Dark Energy Survey, a public catalog of nearly 700 million astronomical objects


DR2 is the second data release in the survey’s seven-year history
Elliptical galaxy NGC 474 with star shells.
DES/NOIRLab/NSF/AURA. Acknowledgments: Image processing: DES, Jen Miller (Gemini Observatory/NSF's NOIRLab), Travis Rector (University of Alaska Anchorage), Mahdi Zamani & Davide de Martin. Image curation: Erin Sheldon, Brookhaven National Laboratory
Francisco J. Castander, Martin Crocce, Pablo Fosalba, Enrique Gaztañaga and Santiago Serrano participate in this international collaboration, that involves Fermilab, the National Center for Supercomputing Applications, NOIRLab and others. The initiative releases a massive, public collection of astronomical data and calibrated images from six years of surveys. This data release is one of the largest astronomical catalogs issued to date.

The Dark Energy Survey, a global collaboration including the Department of Energy’s Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, the National Center for Supercomputing Applications, and the National Science Foundation’s NOIRLab, has released DR2, the second data release in the survey’s seven-year history. DR2 is the topic of sessions today and tomorrow at the 237th Meeting of the American Astronomical Society, which is being held virtually. 

ICE researchers Castander, Crocce, Fosalba, Gaztañaga and Serrano have been involved in the development of DR2 , the second release of images and object catalogs from the Dark Energy Survey, or DES: The catalog is the culmination of over a half-decade of astronomical data collection and analysis with the ultimate goal of understanding the accelerating expansion of the universe and the phenomenon of dark energy, which is thought to be responsible for this accelerated expansion. It is one of the largest astronomical catalogs released to date.

Including a catalog of nearly 700 million astronomical objects, DR2 builds on the 400 million objects cataloged with the survey’s prior data release, or DR1, and also improves on it by refining calibration techniques, which, with the deeper combined images of DR2, lead to improved estimates of the amount and distribution of matter in the universe.

Astronomical researchers around the world can access these unprecedented data and mine them to make new discoveries about the universe, complementary to the studies being carried out by the Dark Energy Survey collaboration. The full data release is online and available to the public to explore and gain their own insights as well.

DES was designed to map hundreds of millions of galaxies and to discover thousands of supernovae in order to measure the history of cosmic expansion and the growth of large-scale structure in the universe, both of which reflect the nature and amount of dark energy in the universe. DES has produced the largest and most accurate dark matter map from galaxy weak lensing to date, as well as a new map, three times larger, that will be released in the near future. 

One early result relates to the construction of a catalog of a type of pulsating star known as "RR Lyrae," which tells scientists about the region of outer space beyond the edge of our Milky Way. In this area nearly devoid of stars, the motion of the RR Lyrae hint at the presence of an enormous “halo” of invisible dark matter, which may provide clues on how our galaxy was assembled over the last 12 billion years. In another result, DES scientists used the extensive DR2 galaxy catalog, along with data from the LIGO experiment, to estimate the location of a black hole merger and, independent of other techniques, infer the value of the Hubble constant, a key cosmological parameter. Combining their data with other surveys, DES scientists have also been able to generate a complete map of Milky Way’s dwarf satellites, giving researchers insight into how our own galaxy was assembled and how it compares with cosmologists’ predictions.

Covering 5,000 square degrees of the southern sky (one-eighth of the entire sky) and spanning billions of light-years, the survey data enables many other investigations in addition to those targeting dark energy, covering a vast range of cosmic distances — from discovering new nearby solar system objects to investigating the nature of the first star-forming galaxies in the early universe. 

"This is a momentous milestone. For six years, the Dark Energy Survey collaboration took pictures of distant celestial objects in the night sky. Now, after carefully checking the quality and calibration of the images captured by the Dark Energy Camera, we are releasing this second batch of data to the public," said DES Director Rich Kron of Fermilab and the University of Chicago. "We invite professional and amateur scientists alike to dig into what we consider a rich mine of gems waiting to be discovered."

The primary tool in collecting these images, the DOE-built Dark Energy Camera, is mounted to the NSF-funded Víctor M. Blanco 4-meter Telescope, part of the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory in the Chilean Andes, part of NSF’s NOIRLab. Each week, the survey collected thousands of pictures of the southern sky, unlocking a trove of potential cosmological insights.

Once captured, these images (and the large amount of data surrounding them) are transferred to the National Center for Supercomputing Applications for processing via the DES Data Management project. Using the Blue Waters supercomputer at NCSA, the Illinois Campus Cluster, and compute systems at Fermilab, NCSA prepares calibrated data products for public and research consumption. It takes approximately four months to process one year’s worth of data into a searchable, usable catalog.

The detailed precision cosmology constraints based on the full six-year DES data set will come out over the next two years.

The DES DR2 is hosted at the Community Science and Data Center, a program of the National Science Foundation’s NOIRLab. CSDC provides software systems, user services and development initiatives to connect and support the scientific missions of NOIRLab’s telescopes, including the Blanco Telescope at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory.

NCSA, NOIRLab and the LIneA Science Server collectively provide the tools and interfaces that enable access to DR2.

“Because astronomical data sets today are so vast, the cost to handle them is prohibitive for individual researchers or most organizations. CSDC provides open access to big astronomical data sets like DES DR2 and the necessary tools to explore and exploit them — then all it takes is someone from the community with a clever idea to discover new and exciting science,” said Robert Nikutta, project scientist for Astro Data Lab at CSDC.

"With information on the positions, shapes, sizes, colors and brightnesses of over 690 million stars, galaxies and quasars, the release promises to be a valuable source for astronomers and scientists worldwide to continue their explorations of the universe, including studies of matter (light and dark) surrounding our home Milky Way Galaxy, as well as pushing further to examine groups and clusters of distant galaxies, which hold precise evidence about how the size of the expanding universe changes over time," said Dark Energy Survey Data Management Project Scientist Brian Yanny of Fermilab. 

About DES
This work is supported in part by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science.
The Dark Energy Survey is a collaboration of more than 400 scientists from 26 institutions in seven countries. Funding for the DES Projects has been provided by the U.S. Department of Energy, the U.S. National Science Foundation, the Ministry of Science and Education of Spain, the Science and Technology Facilities Council of the United Kingdom, the Higher Education Funding Council for England, the National Center for Supercomputing Applications at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, the Kavli Institute of Cosmological Physics at the University of Chicago, Funding Authority for Studies and Projects in Brazil, Carlos Chagas Filho Foundation for Research Support of the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazilian National Council for Scientific and Technological Development and the Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation, the German Research Foundation and the collaborating institutions in the Dark Energy Survey, the list of which can be found at www.darkenergysurvey.org/collaboration. 

About NSF’s NOIRLab
NSF’s NOIRLab (National Optical-Infrared Astronomy Research Laboratory), the US center for ground-based optical-infrared astronomy, operates the international Gemini Observatory (a facility of NSF, NRC–Canada, ANID–Chile, MCTIC–Brazil, MINCyT–Argentina, and KASI–Republic of Korea), Kitt Peak National Observatory (KPNO), Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO), the Community Science and Data Center (CSDC), and Vera C. Rubin Observatory. It is managed by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA) under a cooperative agreement with NSF and is headquartered in Tucson, Arizona. The astronomical community is honored to have the opportunity to conduct astronomical research on Iolkam Du’ag (Kitt Peak) in Arizona, on Maunakea in Hawaiʻi, and on Cerro Tololo and Cerro Pachón in Chile. We recognize and acknowledge the very significant cultural role and reverence that these sites have to the Tohono O’odham Nation, to the Native Hawaiian community, and to the local communities in Chile, respectively.

About NCSA
NCSA at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign provides supercomputing and advanced digital resources for the nation’s science enterprise. At NCSA, University of Illinois faculty, staff, students, and collaborators from around the globe use advanced digital resources to address research grand challenges for the benefit of science and society. NCSA has been advancing one third of the Fortune 50® for more than 30 years by bringing industry, researchers, and students together to solve grand challenges at rapid speed and scale. For more information, please visit www.ncsa.illinois.edu.

About Fermilab
Fermilab is America’s premier national laboratory for particle physics and accelerator research. A U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science laboratory, Fermilab is located near Chicago, Illinois, and operated under contract by the Fermi Research Alliance LLC, a joint partnership between the University of Chicago and the Universities Research Association, Inc. Visit Fermilab’s website at www.fnal.gov and follow us on Twitter at @Fermilab.

The DOE Office of Science is the single largest supporter of basic research in the physical sciences in the United States and is working to address some of the most pressing challenges of our time. For more information, please visit science.energy.gov.

Editor’s note: The DES second data release will be featured at a session of the meeting of the American Astronomical Society. The session, “NOIRLab’s Data Services: A Practical Demo Built on Science with DES DR2”, takes place on Thursday, Jan. 14, 3:10-4:40 p.m. CT.
 
25
November 2020

Disk, planet and star of the same system seen growing together


Disk, planet and star of the same system seen growing together
Filaments of accretion falling into the protoplanetary disk
MPE.
  • A research team led by the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics (MPE) revealed a planetary disk taking shape before its star has completed its formation
  • The study has an important contribution from an Institute of Space Studies of Catalonia (IEEC) researcher at Institute of Space Science (ICE, CSIC)
Stellar systems, like our own, form inside interstellar clouds of gas and dust that collapse producing young stars surrounded by protoplanetary disks. For the first time, the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) has observed a protoplanetary disk with a large gap being fed by the surrounding cloud via large accretion filaments, suggesting that a planet may be forming in tandem with the parent star while the disk around them is still growing. 

The team of astronomers led by Dr. Felipe Alves, from the Center for Astrochemical Studies (CAS) at the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics (MPE) and former doctoral student at the Institute of Space Studies of Catalonia (IEEC — Institut d’Estudis Espacials de Catalunya), used ALMA to study the accretion process in the stellar object  [BHB2007] 1. This system is located at the tip of the Pipe Molecular Cloud. The ALMA data reveal a disk of dust and gas around the protostar, and large filaments of gas around this disk. 

The scientists, which include the researcher Josep Miquel Girart from IEEC at the Institute of Space Sciences (ICE, CSIC), interpret these filaments as accretion streamers feeding the disk with material extracted from the ambient cloud. The disk reprocesses the accreted material, delivering it to the protostar. 

The structure observed is very unusual for stellar objects at this stage of evolution — with an estimated age of 1,000,000 years — when circumstellar disks are already formed and matured for planet formation. “We were quite surprised to observe such prominent accretion filaments falling into the disk”, said Dr. Alves. “The accretion filament activity demonstrates that the disk is still growing while simultaneously nurturing the protostar.”

The team also reports the presence of an enormous cavity within the disk, suggesting a young giant planet or a brown dwarf being formed. The cavity has a width of 70 astronomical units, and it encompasses a compact zone of hot molecular gas. In addition, supplementary data at radio frequencies by the Very Large Array (VLA) point to the existence of non-thermal emission in the same spot where the hot gas was detected. These two lines of evidence indicate that an astronomical object is present within the cavity. As this stellar companion, possibly a planet, accretes material from the disk, it heats up the gas and possibly powers strong ionized winds and/or jets. The team estimates that an object with a mass between 4 and 70 Jupiter masses is needed to produce the observed gap in the disk.

These observations also put new time constraints for planet formation and disk evolution, shedding light on how stellar systems like our own are sculpted from the original cloud.

Links
- IEEC
- MPE
- ALMA
- VLA

More information

This research is presented in the paper “A case of simultaneous star and planet formation”, by Felipe O. Alves et al., published in The Astrophysical Journal Letters on 19 November 2020.
The Institute of Space Studies of Catalonia (IEEC  — Institut d’Estudis Espacials de Catalunya) promotes and coordinates space research and technology development in Catalonia for the benefit of society. IEEC fosters collaborations both locally and worldwide and is an efficient agent of knowledge, innovation and technology transfer. As a result of over 20 years of high-quality research, done in collaboration with major international organisations, IEEC ranks among the best international research centers, focusing on areas such as: astrophysics, cosmology, planetary science, and Earth Observation. IEEC’s engineering division develops instrumentation for ground- and space-based projects, and has extensive experience in working with private or public organisations from the aerospace and other innovation sectors.  

IEEC is a private non-profit foundation, governed by a Board of Trustees composed of Generalitat de Catalunya and four other institutions that each have a research unit, which together constitute the core of IEEC R&D activity: the University of Barcelona (UB) with the research unit ICCUB — Institute of Cosmos Sciences; the Autonomous University of Barcelona (UAB) with the research unit CERES — Center of Space Studies and Research; the Polytechnic University of Catalonia (UPC) with the research unit CTE — Research Group in Space Sciences and Technologies; the Spanish Research Council (CSIC) with the research unit ICE — Institute of Space Sciences. IEEC is integrated in the CERCA network (Centres de Recerca de Catalunya).

Contacts

IEEC Communication Office
Barcelona, Spain

Ana Montaner and Rosa Rodríguez
E-mail: comunicacio@ieec.cat 

Lead Researcher at IEEC
Barcelona, Spain

Josep Miquel Girart
Institute of Space Studies of Catalonia (IEEC)
Institute of Space Sciences (ICE-CSIC)
E-mail: girart@ieec.cat 

Press Release created by the IEEC Comunication Office with the collaboration of Science Wave.
19
October 2020

A technologically viable model for a Mars city, as imagined by a Catalan-led team


A technologically viable model for a Mars city, as imagined by a Catalan-led team
Nuwa Cliff and Valley Cover
ABIBOO Studio (Sebastián Rodríguez) and SONet
  • A proposal for a city on planet Mars by a Catalan-led team was presented on Saturday, 17 October 2020, in the final of the Mars Society competition.
  • The team is led by researchers from the Institute of Space Studies of Catalonia (IEEC) at the Institute of Space Sciences (ICE, CSIC), the Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya · BarcelonaTech (UPC), the School of Industrial, Aerospace and Audiovisual Engineering of Terrassa (ESEIAAT- UPC) and the Institute of Cosmos Sciences of the University of Barcelona (ICCUB), together with the Institute of Marine Sciences (ICM, CSIC).
  • Using the available scientific knowledge about the environment on Mars, the proposal touches on all aspects of human life: from settling, architecture and life support to arts, economics and political systems.
  • The project team will now look for industry, academic and private partners to make further steps in making the martian city a feasible option for future human settling on the Red Planet.
Welcome to Nüwa, capital city on Mars. Human settlers would live here and in four other vertical cities on the cliffs of the Red Planet, which provide protection from radiation, but also exposure to sunlight. The buildings inside the cliffs would be mix-use, able to hold 200,000 to 250,000 people, and comprising areas for living and working, lush gardens in the so-called Green-Domes, “public squares” at the bottom of the cliff, underground sports arenas and music halls, as well as areas to lodge art displays. Settlers would eat a diet based 50% on agriculture, 20% microalgae, and 30% coming from animal meat, insects, mushrooms and cellular meat.

The work per person should be eight times higher than for the average human on Earth, but this can be sorted by imposing automation, standardisation and the use of Artificial Intelligence methods at the design level. Water would be mainly extracted from clays and the oxygen mainly produced by crops and microalgae. After death, the biomass of animals, humans and plants would be incorporated back into the system, but loved ones would be able to keep a small, compressed sample. Mars would eventually become a democracy, with its own constitution and body of law. Each citizen would be a shareholder of Mars’ cities. Society would evolve to a model based on community and sustainability.

This is how a city on Mars would look like and function according to a team of international professionals led by catalan researchers. Using knowledge about the geology, geography and atmosphere of the Red Planet, as well as complex human sociological and psychological research, they have imagined a sustainable evidence-based and technologically viable model for life on Mars.

Their proposal was presented in the Mars City State Design competition of the Mars Society, the world’s largest and most influential space advocacy organisation dedicated to the human exploration and settlement of the planet Mars. The team presented the project on Saturday, 17 October 2020, during the Mars Society Convention after being selected among the 10 finalists from over 175 submitted proposals. Even though they did not win the award, the team stands convinced that the sustainable and human centered approach to the exploration of space is the right way to go. Therefore, they will continue to pursue industry and academic partnerships to bring to life some of the core concepts for humanity’s next habitat on Mars.

This design proposal was initiated and promoted by SONet (the Sustainable Off-world Network), which is a community of mainly European professionals interested in multidisciplinary approaches to sustainable exploration of space. The project is led by researchers from the Institute of Space Studies of Catalonia (IEEC — Institut d’Estudis Espacials de Catalunya) at the Institute of Space Sciences (ICE, CSIC), the Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya (UPC), the School of Industrial, Aerospace and Audiovisual Engineering of Terrassa (ESEIAAT - UPC), and its core architectural & urban planning has been led by the ABIBOO studio. It also has important contributions from members of the Institute of Marine Sciences (ICM, CSIC) and the Institute of Cosmos Sciences of the University of Barcelona (ICCUB). Participants from other countries include researchers and professionals from the United Kingdom, Germany, Austria, USA and Argentina.

“The challenge for the team was to design a settlement with all the welfare of a modern city that was also capable of obtaining all resources locally, and rapidly gaining its financial and logistic independence from Earth”, declared Guillem Anglada-Escudé, Ramón y Cajal researcher of ICE and coordinator of the team. The project touches on all aspects of human life: from the materials used to build settlements and the mechanisms for ensuring oxygen and other life support systems to money, art, childcare, education, political system, workload, death and even inheritance on Mars.

“From a real world architect point of view, designing a functional urban development, while working with the constraints of an alien world was both a mind-boggling and an extremely enriching experience”, declared Alfredo Muñoz, cofounder of ABIBOO studio and leader of the urban and architectural development team. “We cannot wait to keep evolving this first design, and also identify radical new solutions that shall work on Earth as well”.

“The project team will now look for industry, academic and private partners to make further steps in making the martian city a feasible option for future human settling on the Red Planet. “In such a big endeavour, cooperation between experts in many different areas is needed,” explained Miquel Sureda, lecturer of aeronautical engineering at ESEIAAT- UPC. “The success of Nüwa’s project in the Mars Society competition can help SONet gain visibility and attract members and resources.”

"The world has changed radically since we started in March, and will continue to change at forced rates”, concludes Anglada-Escudé. “Meanwhile —he adds— the problems of Earth's sustainability have not disappeared. Although we won't be coming to Mars next year or in twenty years, if after all it serves to inspire Catalan or all-over-the-world professionals and young people working together for a more sustainable world, we have already won."

The next immediate step is seek funding to perform a new design iteration and begin conversations to develop an Earth demonstrator, which should also be used to develop sustainability technologies and as an inspirational element to promote sciences among young and not so young people.

COLLABORATION LIST:
Project Coordination, Economic model & High-level concepts: Guillem Anglada-Escudé, Ph.D.; RyC fellow in Astrophysics; Institute for Space Science/ CSIC & Institut d'Estudis Espacials de Catalunya (EU)

Co-coordination. Space, Earth-Mars transportation & Socio-economics: Miquel Sureda, Ph.D.; Space Science and Technology Research Group, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya & Institut d'Estudis Espacials de Catalunya (EU)

Life Support, Biosystems & Human factors: Gisela Detrell, Ph.D; Institute for Space Systems, Universität Stuttgart (EU)

Design. Architecture & Urbanism: Design Strategy & Coordination: ABIBOO Studio (USA) Preliminary Analysis & Urban Configuration: Alfredo Muñoz (USA); Owen Hughes Pearce (UK)

Detailed Architecture & Urban Design: Alfredo Muñoz (USA); Gonzalo Rojas (Argentina); Engeland Apostol (UK); Sebastián Rodríguez (Argentina); Verónica Florido (UK)

Identity & Graphic Design: Verónica Florido (UK); Engeland Apostol (UK)
Video Direction & CGI: Sebastián Rodríguez (Argentina); Gonzalo Rojas (Argentina)

Mars Materials & Location: Ignasi Casanova, Ph.D.; Prof. Civil and Environmental Engineering; Institute of Energy Technologies (INTE), Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya (EU)

Manufacturing, Advanced Biosystems & Materials: David Cullen; Prof. of Astrobiology and Space Biotechnology; Space Group, University of Cranfield (UK)

Energy & Sustainability: Miquel Banchs i Piqué; School of Civil Engineering & Surveying, University of Portsmouth (UK)

Mining & Excavation systems: Philipp Hartlieb; Prof. in Excavation Engineering, Montan Universitaet Leoben (EU)

Social Services & Life Support Systems: Laia Ribas, Ph.D.; RyC fellow in Biology, Institut de Ciències del Mar/CSIC, (EU)

Mars Climate modeling & Environment: David de la Torre; Dept. of Physics, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya (EU)

CONTRIBUTORS:
Jordi Miralda Escudé (ICREA Prof. in Astrophysics - Ground Transport, UB, EU); Rafael Harillo Gomez-Pastrana (Lawyer, - Political Organization & Space law, EU); Lluis Soler (Ph.D. in Chemistry - Chemical processes, UPC, EU); Paula Betriu (Topographical analysis, - UPC, EU); Uygar Atalay (Location, temperature & Radiation analysis, UPC, EU); Pau Cardona (Earth-Mars Transportation, UPC, EU); Oscar Macia (Earth-Mars Transportation, UPC, EU); Eric Fimbinger (Resource Extraction & Conveyance, Montanuniversität Leoben, EU); Stephanie Hensley (Art Strategy in Mars, USA); Carlos Sierra (Electronic Engineering, ICE/CSIC, EU); Elena Montero (Psychologist, EU); Robert Myhill (Mars science – U. Bristol, UK); Rory Beard (Artificial Intelligence, UK)

SUPPORTING INSTITUTIONS :
CSIC (Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas); ABIBOO Studio; UPC (Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya); Cranfield University; University of Stuttgart; IEEC (Institut d'Estudis Espacials de Catalunya); Montan University Leoben; Institut de Ciencies del Mar; University of Portsmouth.

Links
More information
The Institute of Space Studies of Catalonia (IEEC — Institut d’Estudis Espacials de Catalunya) promotes and coordinates space research and technology development in Catalonia for the benefit of society. IEEC fosters collaborations both locally and worldwide and is an efficient agent of knowledge, innovation and technology transfer. As a result of over 20 years of high-quality research, done in collaboration with major international organisations, IEEC ranks among the best international research centers, focusing on areas such as: astrophysics, cosmology, planetary science, and Earth Observation. IEEC’s engineering division develops instrumentation for ground- and space-based projects, and has extensive experience in working with private or public organisations from the aerospace and other innovation sectors.

IEEC is a private non-profit foundation, governed by a Board of Trustees composed of Generalitat de Catalunya and four other institutions that each have a research unit, which together constitute the core of IEEC R&D activity: the University of Barcelona (UB) with the research unit ICCUB — Institute of Cosmos Sciences; the Autonomous University of Barcelona

(UAB) with the research unit CERES — Center of Space Studies and Research; the Polytechnic University of Catalonia (UPC) with the research unit CTE — Research Group in Space Sciences and Technologies; the Spanish Research Council (CSIC) with the research unit ICE — Institute of Space Sciences. IEEC is integrated in the CERCA network (Centres de Recerca de Catalunya).

Contacts
IEEC Communication Office Barcelona, Spain
Ana Montaner Pizà
E-mail: comunicacio@ieec.cat

Institute of Space Sciences (ICE - CSIC) Barcelona, Spain
Guillem Anglada-Escudé
E-mail: anglada@ice.csic.es

Technical University of Catalonia (UPC) Barcelona, Spain
Miquel Sureda Anfres
E-mail: miquel.sureda@upc.edu
13
October 2020

Catalan researchers lead project selected among the finalists of the Mars Society competition to develop a city on the red planet


Investigadors catalans finalistes al concurs de la Mars Society per desenvolupar una ciutat al planeta vermell
Artistic representation of a dome on Mars
ABIBOO studio / SONet (Gonzalo Rojas)
  • The Mars city proposal is led by researchers from the Institute of Space Studies of Catalonia (IEEC) at the Institute of Space Sciences (ICE, CSIC), the Polytechnic University of Catalonia (UPC) and the Institute of Cosmos Sciences (ICCUB). 
  • The project is one of the 10 finalists, selected from more than 175 proposals submitted to the competition.
  • The final presentation will take place on 17 October 2020, with the event being streamed around the world via Facebook live.
What would a city look like on Mars? How would trade work? How would the urban population evolve? An international group led by researchers from the Institute of Space Studies of Catalonia (IEEC  — Institut d’Estudis Espacials de Catalunya) imagined the Mars city NÜWA, detailed in a comprehensive project that includes scientific, engineering, architectural, economical and social aspects. The project proposes not only a feasible urban design, but also a socio-economic development plan, as well as high-level descriptions of the industry, infrastructure, generation and distribution of energy and services needed to make it a reality. 

The project of the international team “The Sustainable Offworld Network" (SONet) has been selected as one of the 10 finalist proposals in the Mars City State Design competition of the Mars Society, the world’s largest and most influential space advocacy organisation dedicated to the human exploration and settlement of the planet Mars. The competition is focused on developing a city of one million people on Mars in a sustainable way.

The proposal is led by IEEC researchers at the Institute of Space Sciences (ICE, CSIC), the Polytechnic University of Catalonia (UPC) and the Institute of Cosmos Sciences (ICCUB), together with other research centers throughout Spain, including the Institute of Marine Sciences (ICM, CSIC). Participants from other countries such as the United Kingdom, Germany, USA and Argentina are also part of the team.

The finalist projects, selected from over 175 proposals, will be publicly defended on 17 October 2020 at the Mars Society Convention. Five proposals will finally receive an award. The defense will be public and shared via streaming around the world via Facebook live.

The SONet proposal consists of a 20-page long report with a conceptual design combining a wide range of aspects, from space exploration to sustainability. The city, called NÜWA in honour of the Chinese goddess who created humanity, symbolises the beginning of a new era of our civilisation on Mars and the protection that must be ensured in such an inhospitable world.

"The proposal is an effort to combine many disciplines in a way that is not usually done in space projects" explains Guillem Anglada-Escudé, Ramón y Cajal researcher of ICE and coordinator of the team. "In addition to scientists and engineers, we wanted from the very beginning to incorporate experts in other disciplines and from outside the academic sector." The collaboration includes, as a very important contributor, the architecture and design team ABIBOO studio.

The project was forged during online meetings in April, May and June 2020 in the midst of the confinement due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Now, the proposal has borne fruit. "Reaching the final is already a great success for the whole team", explains Miquel Sureda, lecturer of aeronautical engineering at The School of Industrial, Aerospace and Audiovisual Engineering of Terrassa (ESEIAAT- UPC). "We hope the competition will provide us with the visibility we need to gather support and develop concepts related to both space and sustainability, and the necessary transformation of the productive system that we must also face here on Earth".

The director of the Institute of Energy Techniques - UPC and co-author of the initiative, Ignasi Casanova, explains: "Performing these exercises also makes us realise the great dependence we have on what our planet gives us in return for nothing. For example — he adds —  the production of food requires a huge amount of energy that here on Earth comes from the Sun, but which involves the use of large arable areas, and it is therefore one of the more aggressive human activities towards the terrestrial ecosystem”. Issues such as the use and abuse of plastics, construction and material solutions that minimise the intensive use of energy and total recyclability have also been studied in the proposal.

"In reality, the Earth is just a place in a vast Universe. If we learn how to create societies with closed resource circulation, which do not critically depend on remote imports to another planet, we should also be able to solve many of the problems we have on Earth today", concludes Anglada-Escudé.

The presentation will be broadcasted on Saturday, 17 October 2020 at 22:00h (CEST), via 'Facebook live'. Viewers must register for free on the Mars Society website.

Links
- IEEC
- ICE - CSIC
- UPC
- ICC - UB
- The Sustainable Offworld Network (SONet) 
- Mars Society

More information
The Institute of Space Studies of Catalonia (IEEC  — Institut d’Estudis Espacials de Catalunya) promotes and coordinates space research and technology development in Catalonia for the benefit of society. IEEC fosters collaborations both locally and worldwide and is an efficient agent of knowledge, innovation and technology transfer. As a result of over 20 years of high-quality research, done in collaboration with major international organisations, IEEC ranks among the best international research centers, focusing on areas such as: astrophysics, cosmology, planetary science, and Earth Observation. IEEC’s engineering division develops instrumentation for ground- and space-based projects, and has extensive experience in working with private or public organisations from the aerospace and other innovation sectors.  
IEEC is a private non-profit foundation, governed by a Board of Trustees composed of Generalitat de Catalunya and four other institutions that each have a research unit, which together constitute the core of IEEC R&D activity: the University of Barcelona (UB) with the research unit ICCUB — Institute of Cosmos Sciences; the Autonomous University of Barcelona (UAB) with the research unit CERES — Center of Space Studies and Research; the Polytechnic University of Catalonia (UPC) with the research unit CTE — Research Group in Space Sciences and Technologies; the Spanish Research Council (CSIC) with the research unit ICE — Institute of Space Sciences. IEEC is integrated in the CERCA network (Centres de Recerca de Catalunya).

Contacts
IEEC Communication Office
Barcelona, Spain
Ana Montaner Pizà
E-mail: comunicacio@ieec.cat 

Institute of Space Sciences (ICE - CSIC)
Barcelona, Spain
Guillem Anglada-Escudé
E-mail: anglada@ice.csic.es

Technical University of Catalonia (UPC)
Barcelona, Spain
Miquel Sureda Anfres
E-mail: miquel.sureda@upc.edu
07
October 2020

First shared prize for the Scientific Short Film of the researcher Enrique Gaztañaga in Ciencia en Acción 2020


Enrique Gaztañaga galardonado con el primer premio compartido en la final del programa Ciencia en Acción 2020
Enrique Gaztanaga
ICE
The researcher from the Institut d'Estudis Espacials de Catalunya (IEEC) at the Institute of Space Sciences (ICE-CSIC) Enrique Gaztañaga has been awarded the first prize ex-aequo in the Ciencia en Acción 2020 competition, in the modality Scientific Shorts, with the work entitled “2019 THE ACCELERATING COSMOS Part I Chap. III”. This award has been shared with Álex Muntada and Jaume Benet, both from the Facultat de Comunicació Blanquerna of the Universitat Ramon Llull in Barcelona. The different awards were announced in a virtual event that, a priori, had to be held in Murcia on 2-4 October.

Santiago Serrano, also an IEEC researcher at ICE-CSIC, has participated in the production of audiovisual material, with videos showing images of the MICE (Marenostrum Institute of Space Sciences) cosmological simulations carried out by members of the ICE-CSIC Cosmology group: Francisco Castander, Pablo Fosalba and Martin Crocce.

"2019 THE ACCELERATING COSMOS Part I Chap. III" is an outreach documentary that explains the efforts of the scientific community to elucidate what is the cause of the accelerated expansion of the Universe. This scientific short film tells us how the world's largest digital camera has been installed on a giant telescope to carry out the largest map of the cosmos to date. It is the story of Enrique Gaztañaga and his work in making galaxy maps such as the Spanish initiative PAU (Physics of the Accelerating Universe) and DES (Dark Energy Survey), both galactic mapping projects in which Gaztañaga participates decisively. 

But why are these cosmic maps so necessary? The answer comes from a discovery made public in 1998 and awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 2011: the Universe is expanding at an accelerated rate. This idea, not alway well known by the general public, challenges our understanding of the fundamental laws of nature and constitutes one of the greatest unsolved mysteries of the cosmos. There seems to be an enigmatic dark matter that holds stars and galaxies together. And an even stranger force, called dark energy, that is accelerating the expansion of the Universe. Combined, both make up 95% of its matter-energy. However its nature is still unknown. As far as we know today the only way to solve the mystery of the accelerated expansion of the Universe is mapping it, that is, creating large galaxy maps such as PAU and DES. 

Ciencia en Acción is an international competition aimed at students, lecturers, researchers and disseminators of the scientific community, in any of its disciplines. Its main goal is to present science in an attractive and motivating way. The programme is run by Rosa María Ferré, PhD in Physical Sciences from the University of Barcelona, ​​who has assumed its development over 20 editions since its inception. Several institutions participate in Ciencia en Acción: the Spanish National Research Council (CSIC), the Fundación Lilly, the Fundació Princesa de Girona (FPdGi), the Institute of Mathematical Sciences (ICMAT), the Royal Spanish Physical Society (RSEF), the Royal Spanish Society of Chemistry (RSEQ), the Spanish Astronomy Society (SEA), the Geological Society of Spain (SGE) and the National University of Distance Education (UNED).

You can enjoy the short here, whlie a large version can be found here.
10
September 2020

A proposal for the new generation Einstein Telescope observatory — potential infrastructure of the future


Proposal submitted to include the Einstein Telescope in the ESFRI roadmap
Proposal to include the Einstein Telescope in ESFRI roadmap
NASA / Imagno / Getty Images
A proposal for the new generation Einstein Telescope observatory — potential infrastructure of the future
  • The Einstein Telescope is an ambitious third-generation gravitational-wave ground-based observatory project.
  • The proposal to include the project in the 2021 update of the European Strategic Forum for Research Infrastructures (ESFRI) roadmap has been signed by 40 European institutions, eight of which are Spanish.
  • Spanish researchers have contributed significantly to the development of the project’s physics program, as well as to the preparation of its technical design report.
The Einstein Telescope (ET) is the most ambitious project for a future terrestrial observatory for gravitational waves (GWs). The conceptual design of this pioneering third-generation observatory has been supported by a grant of the European Commission. Now, a consortium of European countries and of research institutions and universities has officially submitted the proposal for the realisation of such an infrastructure in the 2021 update of the European Strategic Forum for Research Infrastructures (ESFRI) roadmap [1].
The ET consortium brings together about 40 research institutions and universities in several European countries, including France, Germany, Hungary, Norway, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. Among the institutions that signed the proposal, eight are Spanish [2]. The proposal also has the political support of Belgium, Poland, Spain and The Netherlands, and is led by Italy. Its transnational headquarters was established at the European Gravitational Observatory (EGO) in Italy.

The amazing scientific achievements of Advanced Virgo (in Europe) and Advanced LIGO (in the USA) in the last 5 years initiated the era of GW astronomy. The adventure began with the first direct detection of gravitational waves in September 2015 and continued in August 2017 when the two observatories observed gravitational waves emitted by two merging neutron stars. Simultaneously, signals of this event were observed with a variety of electromagnetic telescopes —on the ground and in space— over the entire observable wavelength range —from radio waves to gamma rays—. This marked the beginning of the era of multi-messenger astronomy with gravitational waves.
 
The recent observation of the merging of two black holes to create one 142 times more massive than the Sun —a so-called Intermediate Mass Black Hole— demonstrated the existence of such previously unknown objects in our Universe. The Einstein Telescope will enable scientists to detect any merge of two intermediate-mass black holes in the entire universe and thus contribute to the understanding of its evolution. This will shed new light on the Dark Universe and will clarify the roles of dark energy and dark matter in the structure of the cosmos. ET will explore the physics of black holes and will detect thousands of coalescences of neutron stars improving our understanding of the behaviour of matter under such extreme conditions of density and pressure. In addition, we will have a chance to explore the nuclear physics underlying the supernova explosions of the stars.
These challenging scientific targets need a new observatory capable of observing GWs with a sensitivity at least one order of magnitude better than the current detectors (the so-called second generation). The Einstein Telescope will be located in a new infrastructure and will apply technologies that are dramatically improved over the current ones. Two sites for the development of the ET infrastructure are currently being evaluated: the Euregio Meuse-Rhine, at the borders of Belgium, Germany and the Netherlands, and Sardinia, Italy.  It is hoped that a companion project in the US, Cosmic Explorer, will follow.

The Einstein Telescope has aroused great interest in the Spanish scientific community involved in gravitational waves, which includes all the centers that currently participate in ground-based (LIGO / Virgo / KAGRA) and space (LISA) programs. Spanish researchers have contributed significantly to the development of the ET physics program, as well as to the preparation of its technical design report. Furthermore, motivated by the development of new technologies and the potential significant returns for Spanish industry, explicit support was also provided by research institutions, including some “Singular Scientific and Technical Infrastructures” (ICTS). In total, up to 23 Spanish institutions supported the ESFRI initiative [3].

Notes
[1] The European Strategic Forum for Research Infrastructures (ESFRI) roadmap describes the future major research infrastructures in Europe.
[2] List of Spanish Institutions that have signed the ET ESFRI proposal: Higher Council for Scientific Research (CSIC), Institute of Space Sciences (ICE-CSIC), Institute of Cosmos Sciences (ICCUB), Institute of Structure of Matter (IEM), Institute of Physics of High Energy (IFAE), Institute of Theoretical Physics (IFT-CSIC), University of the Balearic Islands (UIB) and University of Valencia (UV).
[3] List of Spanish Institutions that initially supported the ET ESFRI initiative: Institute of Space Sciences (ICE-CSIC), Institute of Cosmos Sciences (ICCUB), ALBA Synchrotron, Barcelona Supercomputing Center (BSC), Canfranc Underground Laboratory (LSC), Research Centre for Energy, Environment and Technology (CIEMAT), Spanish National Research Council (CSIC), Institute of Structure of Matter (IEM), Institute of High Energy Physics (IFAE), Institute of Corpuscular Physics (IFIC-CSIC), Institute of Theoretical Physics (IFT-CSIC), Port d'informació Científica (PIC), RedIris, University of Alicante (UA), Autonomous University of Madrid (UAM), University of the Balearic Islands (UIB), University of Cádiz (UC), University of Murcia (UMU) , University of the Basque Country (UPV-EHU), Polytechnic University of Madrid (UPM), University of Salamanca (USAL), University of Santiago de Compostela (USC) and University of Valencia (UV). The candidacy was also supported by the Spanish Society of Relativity and Gravitation (SEGRE).

Links
More information
The Institute of Space Studies of Catalonia (IEEC  — Institut d’Estudis Espacials de Catalunya) promotes and coordinates space research and technology development in Catalonia for the benefit of society. IEEC fosters collaborations both locally and worldwide and is an efficient agent of knowledge, innovation and technology transfer. As a result of over 20 years of high-quality research, done in collaboration with major international organisations, IEEC ranks among the best international research centers, focusing on areas such as: astrophysics, cosmology, planetary science, and Earth Observation. IEEC’s engineering division develops instrumentation for ground- and space-based projects, and has extensive experience in working with private or public organisations from the aerospace and other innovation sectors. 
 
IEEC is a private non-profit foundation, governed by a Board of Trustees composed of Generalitat de Catalunya and four other institutions that each have a research unit, which together constitute the core of IEEC R&D activity: the University of Barcelona (UB) with the research unit ICCUB — Institute of Cosmos Sciences; the Autonomous University of Barcelona (UAB) with the research unit CERES — Center of Space Studies and Research; the Polytechnic University of Catalonia (UPC) with the research unit CTE — Research Group in Space Sciences and Technologies; the Spanish Research Council (CSIC) with the research unit ICE — Institute of Space Sciences. IEEC is integrated in the CERCA network (Centres de Recerca de Catalunya).
 
Contacts
IEEC Communication Office
Barcelona, Spain
Ana Montaner Pizà
E-mail: comunicacio@ieec.cat
 
Institute of Space Sciences (ICE, CSIC)
Barcelona, Spain
Carlos F. Sopuerta
E-mail: sopuerta@ice.csic.es
 
Institute of Cosmos Sciences (ICC-UB)
Barcelona, Spain
Jordi Portell i de Mora
E-mail: jportell@fqa.ub.edu
 
Institute of High Energy Physics (IFAE)
Barcelona, Spain
Member of the Einstein Telescope Directive Committee
Mario Martínez
E-mail: mmp@ifae.es

Press Release elaborated by the IEEC Communication Office in collaboration with Science Wave.
 
01
September 2020

A Nebula's Gamma-ray Heartbeat is NASA high-energy picture of the week


NASA High Energy Astrophysics Archive features our recent SS433 research with its Picture of the Week
NASA High Energy Astrophysics Archive has selected an image related to a recent Nature Astronomy paper for its Picture of the Week: https://heasarc.gsfc.nasa.gov/docs/objects/heapow/archive/nebulae/SS433_fermi.html

Using Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope and the giant Arecibo radio telescope our study revealed a high-energy "heartbeat", coming from a cosmic gas cloud located about 100 light years away from SS 433. The surprising gamma-ray signal from this otherwise cold, innocuous cloud pulses with the rhythm of the precessing jet from the black hole in SS 433. This shows that shomehow there must be a direct connection between the precessing jet from SS 433 and the gamma-ray pulsations at the cloud.

Reference:
Gamma-ray heartbeat powered by the microquasar SS 433;  Jian Li, Diego Torres , Ruo-Yu Liu, Matthew Kerr, Emma de Oña Wilhelmi, Yang Su; Nature Astronomy, 2020; DOI: 10.1038/s41550-020-1164-6
Institute of Space Sciences (IEEC-CSIC)

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An institute of the Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas

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Affiliated with the Institut d'Estudis Espacials de Catalunya

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