Número de entradas: **51**

### Characterization of CARMENES M-dwarf spectral binaries

**Estado:** defended (15/09/2017)

**Estudiante:** Baroch, David

**Supervisada por:** Juan Carlos Morales Peralta; Ignasi Ribas Canudas

**Universidad:** Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona

**Estado:** defended (15/09/2017)

**Estudiante:** Baroch, David

**Supervisada por:** Juan Carlos Morales Peralta; Ignasi Ribas Canudas

**Universidad:** Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona

In this project we analysed the radial velocities from the CARMENES project (an spectroscopic survey of 300 M-dwarf stars to look for exoplanets) of targets that turned out to be binary systems, with the aim of characterizing their orbital parameters and their physical properties. We also studied the photometry of these systems to find the rotation period of the primary star and to look for possible eclipses between the components. All this data will help the CARMENES consortium when trying to find planets around these stars. We updated the multiplicity fraction of M dwarfs by including the binary stars that we have identified, which are presented in this work for the first time.

We computed the radial velocities of both stars of the binary systems from their spectra using TODMOR. It uses two spectrum templates that are shifted with different velocities until they best match the observed spectra. The fit of an orbital solution to the measured radial velocities is obtained with the SBOP code, which computes an orbital solution and their physical parameters. We made periodograms of the photometry to find the rotation period of the stars, and we used the BLS webtool to look for eclipses.

We studied a total of 12 binary systems, of which 9 are double-lined spectral binaries (SB2’s) and 3 are single-lined (SB1). We defined with low relative errors the period of 5 systems, of which 3 have periods shorter than 10 days and 2 have periods between 100 and 200 days. It has been possible to estimate a period for other 4 systems, although they have large relative uncertainties and more observations are needed to constrain them better. For the remaining 3 systems, we only determined lower and upper period limits due to their long orbits. The study of the residuals of one of the SB1’s resulted in the detection of a signal at 1.69 days compatible with a planet of a minimum mass of 13.4 M⊕, though the signal is not significant yet and more observations are needed to confirm it. We gave the rotation period of 7 stars, an estimation of the individual masses of all the SB2’s and upper and lower limits of the individual masses of SB1’s, assuming several constraints. We estimated a lower limit for the multiplicity fraction of M dwarf stars of 41±3%.
### Extending BeSPP Capabilities for Asteroseismic Analysis of Solar-like Stars: How Bayesian Prior Constraints and the Application of Frequency Ratios Allows for Precise Determination of Fundamental Stellar Parameters

**Estado:** defended (11/09/2017)

**Estudiante:** Walker, Oliver

**Supervisada por:** Aldo Serenelli

**Universidad:** Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona

**Estado:** defended (11/09/2017)

**Estudiante:** Walker, Oliver

**Supervisada por:** Aldo Serenelli

**Universidad:** Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona

This thesis utilises a Bayesian pipeline known as BeSPP, designed to output stellar parameters for the purposes of analysis, in order to constrain the masses, ages, radii and densities on the Sun and 66 solar-like stars from the Kepler asteroseismic legacy sample. The work outlines both the positive effect of Bayesian statistics, in particular priors, on constraining parameters, as well as the effect of taking frequency separation ratios from individual frequencies of model data, an action that effectively removes the large turbulent convective zone that features greatly in solar-like stars. BeSPP is extended to cater for these ratios and a normalisation is applied to the likelihood to produce histograms of fundamental parameters ready for discussion. The pipeline was found to greatly constrain all standard deviations of histograms concerning each stellar parameter with the increase in ratios applied (r02, r01, and r10), and a table containing all histogram data can be found in Appendix A. Also highlighted is the strong correlation between ratios by way of applying a covariance matrix to normalisation factors. The work concludes with examples of the benefits of the ratios in matters such as constraining parameters of globular clusters and stellar population, and the influence on galactic archaeology.
### Describing the sources of meteor activity in May 2015: Eta Aquarids from 1P/Halley

**Estado:** defended (08/09/2017)

**Estudiante:** Real, K.

**Supervisada por:** Josep M. Trigo-Rodríguez

**Universidad:** Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona

**Estado:** defended (08/09/2017)

**Estudiante:** Real, K.

**Supervisada por:** Josep M. Trigo-Rodríguez

**Universidad:** Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona

The deceleration of asteroid and cometary particles in the Earth’s atmosphere pro-

duces their ablation as luminous columns of ionized gas. This master thesis de-

scribes the general reduction procedure of the multi-station detection of meteors

and ﬁreballs, in order to reconstruct their atmospheric trajectories, velocities and he-

liocentric orbits and determine their potential origin. This thesis will exemplify the

different steps by analysing two meteor events which were recorded by the SPMN

in early May 2015. One event was determined to be a part of the Eta Aquarid ﬁreball

outburst in May 2015 and it had a deduced apparent radiant of αg = 340.1 ± 0.7º ,

and δg = −0.6 ± −0.7 º and a pre-atmospheric velocity v∞ = 64.8 ± 0.5 km/s, both of

which were consistent with previous research. The second event was found to be a

sporadic meteor with an absolute visual magnitude of -9. Its apparent radiant and

pre-atmospheric velocity were calculated to be αg = (0.4 ± 0.8)º , δg = (66.3 ± 0.8)º and

v∞ = 40.7 ± 0.5 km/s, respectively. The computed orbital elements indicated that

it was most likely associated with a sun-grazer comet.
### Nakhla Meteorite in context of Martian achondrites

**Estado:** defended (07/09/2017)

**Estudiante:** Donoso Linares, J.A.

**Supervisada por:** Josep M. Trigo-Rodríguez

**Universidad:** Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona

**Estado:** defended (07/09/2017)

**Estudiante:** Donoso Linares, J.A.

**Supervisada por:** Josep M. Trigo-Rodríguez

**Universidad:** Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona

The Nakhla martian meteorite fell in Egypt on June 28,1911 and was re-

covered soon after its fall. This master thesis is focused on the study of this

martian achondrite by using several analytical techniques: petrographic mi-

croscopy, scanning electron microscopy and EDX, and Raman spectroscopy.

A thin sample of Nakhla was selected for the study, and an overall character-

ization of the mineral composition was done at selected regions of interest.

Bulk mineralogy of Nakhla is similar to the one described in scientiﬁc liter-

ature, but speciﬁc attention was given to describing the nature of secondary

minerals that are known to be the result of aqueous alteration. Clear evi-

dence of Nakhla being formed under the presence of water was found. This

evidence is compared with scientiﬁc literature describing recent results ob-

tained by instrumentation aboard spacecrafts and rovers. Finally, by using

Raman spectroscopy evidence of shock in the meteorite was presented and

put into context for the possible origin and ejection from the martian surface.
### The Lambdac(2940)+ as a molecular D*N (Ds*Lambda) state

**Estado:** defended (25/07/2017)

**Estudiante:** Montaña, G.

**Supervisada por:** Laura Tolos ; Ramos, A.

**Universidad:** Universitat de Barcelona

**Estado:** defended (25/07/2017)

**Estudiante:** Montaña, G.

**Supervisada por:** Laura Tolos ; Ramos, A.

**Universidad:** Universitat de Barcelona

Upon the assumption of being a resonance with spin-parity J=3/2-, the Lambda_c(2940)+ is described

in this thesis as a vector meson-baryon molecule. Also, a visible signal of this resonance

is found in the invariant mass spectrum of the Lambda_b -> pi D0 p decay. This is achieved after a

complete study of the interaction of pseudoscalar mesons and vector mesons with baryons in

the charm C = 1 sector within a coupled-channel approach in SU(4), using the hidden gauge

formalism to implement the interaction through a vector meson exchange model. The results of

the model presented here predict the Lambdac(2940)+ as a state with basically rho Sigma_c and K*Xi'c components,

but also coupling to the D*N and D*sLambda channels. It is the coupling to these latter

vector meson-baryon systems which allows the appearance of a peak in the D0p invariant mass

distribution of the b decay, signalling the presence of the Lambdac(2940)+. The study of the details

of the weak decay and the hadronization process leads to a clear signal of this resonance, as well

as other interesting features, which make the Lambda_b -> pi D0 p decay an interesting process to be

observed experimentally, both for validating the molecular nature of the Lambdac(2940)+ and for the

observation of new exotic hadron states.
### Inflation from fluid models

**Estado:** defended (15/02/2017)

**Estudiante:** Kerim Demirel

**Supervisada por:** Sergei D Odintsov ; Emilio Elizalde

**Universidad:** Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona

**Estado:** defended (15/02/2017)

**Estudiante:** Kerim Demirel

**Supervisada por:** Sergei D Odintsov ; Emilio Elizalde

**Universidad:** Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona

Fluid inflation is proposed and studied.
### The J/Psi interaction with nucleons and baryons within a unitarized SU(6)x HQSS meson-baryon model

**Estado:** defended (24/10/2016)

**Estudiante:** Elisabet Galiana Baldo

**Supervisada por:** Laura Tolos

**Universidad:** Universitat de Barcelona

**Estado:** defended (24/10/2016)

**Estudiante:** Elisabet Galiana Baldo

**Supervisada por:** Laura Tolos

**Universidad:** Universitat de Barcelona

We present a detailed analysis of the hidden charm sector (i.e. with cc pairs),

with C = 0. In particular, we study the interaction between J/Y and nucleons and

baryons. For this purpose, we use a theoretical model that has been built in previous

works, that is based on a suitable extension of the Weinberg Tomozawa term

to include, beside Chiral Symmetry, Spin Flavour Symmetry in the light sector and

Heavy Quark Spin Symmetry in the heavy sector. Within this model we obtain the

interaction between J=1/2+, J=3/2+ baryons and pseudoscalar and vector mesons which

contain light and heavy quarks. We carry out the calculation of some scattering observables,

such as cross sections and scattering lengths, while comparing the results

with other works. Moreover, we analyze the existence of the two new states recently

discovered by the LHCb Collaboration, the P+c (4380) and P+c (4450) pentaquarks.

We find that we can only reproduce one of the state, the Pc(4450) pentaquark, if we

modify considerably the subtraction point.
### Correlations between Cosmic Voids and CMB Lensing in the MICE Simulation

**Estado:** defended (14/09/2016)

**Estudiante:** Umut Emek Demirbozan

**Supervisada por:** Pablo Fosalba Vela; Kovacs, A.

**Estado:** defended (14/09/2016)

**Estudiante:** Umut Emek Demirbozan

**Supervisada por:** Pablo Fosalba Vela; Kovacs, A.

In this Master Thesis we investigate the correlation between Cosmic Microwave Background(CMB) lensing with cosmic voids in the large scale structure in the universe by using MICE-Grand Challenge(GC) simulation. We use the convergence map generated from MICE-Grand Challange simula- tion to search for correlation between CMB lensing convergence with cosmic voids. We identify the voids in MICE-GC simulation by using the void finder algorithm in Sanchez et al. (2016) and use different samples of input galaxies from MICE-GC and measure CMB lensing effect in these samples. One recent study Cai et al. (2016) found a significant correlation between Planck convergence data and BOSS-CMASS voids and we were developing our work in parallel to this study. In our study, we find ≈ 3σ correlation by using similar input sample (0.4
### GAMMA RAY EMISSION STUDY OF PSR J2022+3842 WITH FERMILAT

**Estado:** defended (14/09/2016)

**Estudiante:** Mariona Caixach

**Supervisada por:** Emma de Ona Wilhelmi

**Universidad:** Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona

**Estado:** defended (14/09/2016)

**Estudiante:** Mariona Caixach

**Supervisada por:** Emma de Ona Wilhelmi

**Universidad:** Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona

This project presents the analysis of the pulsar PSR J2022+3842 which has been previously identified as one of the most energetic pulsars in radio and X-rays. Here we analyse the source 3FGL J2022.2+3840 identifying it with the pulsar. The analysis has been taken from data observed by the LAT, on board of the NASA satellite Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope, in order to study its gamma radiation from 60 MeV to 50GeV. Previously, in order to make the project more understandable, some theoretical aspects about very high energy radiation and pulsars are explained.
### Analyzing the photometric performance of the PAU survey

**Estado:** defended (14/09/2016)

**Estudiante:** Andrea Pocino Yuste

**Supervisada por:** Francisco Javier Castander Serentill

**Universidad:** Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona

**Estado:** defended (14/09/2016)

**Estudiante:** Andrea Pocino Yuste

**Supervisada por:** Francisco Javier Castander Serentill

**Universidad:** Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona

Using the Bayesian Photometric Redshift, a template-fitting based code, we compute the expected photometric accuracy for the Physics of the Accelerating Universe (PAU) sur- vey through simulations. We check its real performance by computing the photometric redshift using observed data through PAUCam from a period of observations during the first semester of 2016. Then we validate the photo-z by comparing it to the highly reliable photometric and spectroscopic redshift from COSMOS survey. At the end we obtain a photometric accuracy of σ ∼ 0.0019(1 + z) for real data of PAU.

In this project we analysed the radial velocities from the CARMENES project (an spectroscopic survey of 300 M-dwarf stars to look for exoplanets) of targets that turned out to be binary systems, with the aim of characterizing their orbital parameters and their physical properties. We also studied the…

In this project we analysed the radial velocities from the CARMENES project (an spectroscopic survey of 300 M-dwarf stars to look for exoplanets) of targets that turned out to be binary systems, with the aim of characterizing their orbital parameters and their physical properties. We also studied the photometry of these systems to find the rotation period of the primary star and to look for possible eclipses between the components. All this data will help the CARMENES consortium when trying to find planets around these stars. We updated the multiplicity fraction of M dwarfs by including the binary stars that we have identified, which are presented in this work for the first time.

We computed the radial velocities of both stars of the binary systems from their spectra using TODMOR. It uses two spectrum templates that are shifted with different velocities until they best match the observed spectra. The fit of an orbital solution to the measured radial velocities is obtained with the SBOP code, which computes an orbital solution and their physical parameters. We made periodograms of the photometry to find the rotation period of the stars, and we used the BLS webtool to look for eclipses.

We studied a total of 12 binary systems, of which 9 are double-lined spectral binaries (SB2’s) and 3 are single-lined (SB1). We defined with low relative errors the period of 5 systems, of which 3 have periods shorter than 10 days and 2 have periods between 100 and 200 days. It has been possible to estimate a period for other 4 systems, although they have large relative uncertainties and more observations are needed to constrain them better. For the remaining 3 systems, we only determined lower and upper period limits due to their long orbits. The study of the residuals of one of the SB1’s resulted in the detection of a signal at 1.69 days compatible with a planet of a minimum mass of 13.4 M⊕, though the signal is not significant yet and more observations are needed to confirm it. We gave the rotation period of 7 stars, an estimation of the individual masses of all the SB2’s and upper and lower limits of the individual masses of SB1’s, assuming several constraints. We estimated a lower limit for the multiplicity fraction of M dwarf stars of 41±3%.

This thesis utilises a Bayesian pipeline known as BeSPP, designed to output stellar parameters for the purposes of analysis, in order to constrain the masses, ages, radii and densities on the Sun and 66 solar-like stars from the Kepler asteroseismic legacy sample. The work outlines both the positive…

This thesis utilises a Bayesian pipeline known as BeSPP, designed to output stellar parameters for the purposes of analysis, in order to constrain the masses, ages, radii and densities on the Sun and 66 solar-like stars from the Kepler asteroseismic legacy sample. The work outlines both the positive effect of Bayesian statistics, in particular priors, on constraining parameters, as well as the effect of taking frequency separation ratios from individual frequencies of model data, an action that effectively removes the large turbulent convective zone that features greatly in solar-like stars. BeSPP is extended to cater for these ratios and a normalisation is applied to the likelihood to produce histograms of fundamental parameters ready for discussion. The pipeline was found to greatly constrain all standard deviations of histograms concerning each stellar parameter with the increase in ratios applied (r02, r01, and r10), and a table containing all histogram data can be found in Appendix A. Also highlighted is the strong correlation between ratios by way of applying a covariance matrix to normalisation factors. The work concludes with examples of the benefits of the ratios in matters such as constraining parameters of globular clusters and stellar population, and the influence on galactic archaeology.

The deceleration of asteroid and cometary particles in the Earth’s atmosphere pro- duces their ablation as luminous columns of ionized gas. This master thesis de- scribes the general reduction procedure of the multi-station detection of meteors and ﬁreballs, in order to reconstruct their atmospheric…

The deceleration of asteroid and cometary particles in the Earth’s atmosphere pro-

duces their ablation as luminous columns of ionized gas. This master thesis de-

scribes the general reduction procedure of the multi-station detection of meteors

and ﬁreballs, in order to reconstruct their atmospheric trajectories, velocities and he-

liocentric orbits and determine their potential origin. This thesis will exemplify the

different steps by analysing two meteor events which were recorded by the SPMN

in early May 2015. One event was determined to be a part of the Eta Aquarid ﬁreball

outburst in May 2015 and it had a deduced apparent radiant of αg = 340.1 ± 0.7º ,

and δg = −0.6 ± −0.7 º and a pre-atmospheric velocity v∞ = 64.8 ± 0.5 km/s, both of

which were consistent with previous research. The second event was found to be a

sporadic meteor with an absolute visual magnitude of -9. Its apparent radiant and

pre-atmospheric velocity were calculated to be αg = (0.4 ± 0.8)º , δg = (66.3 ± 0.8)º and

v∞ = 40.7 ± 0.5 km/s, respectively. The computed orbital elements indicated that

it was most likely associated with a sun-grazer comet.

The Nakhla martian meteorite fell in Egypt on June 28,1911 and was re- covered soon after its fall. This master thesis is focused on the study of this martian achondrite by using several analytical techniques: petrographic mi- croscopy, scanning electron microscopy and EDX, and Raman spectroscopy. A…

The Nakhla martian meteorite fell in Egypt on June 28,1911 and was re-

covered soon after its fall. This master thesis is focused on the study of this

martian achondrite by using several analytical techniques: petrographic mi-

croscopy, scanning electron microscopy and EDX, and Raman spectroscopy.

A thin sample of Nakhla was selected for the study, and an overall character-

ization of the mineral composition was done at selected regions of interest.

Bulk mineralogy of Nakhla is similar to the one described in scientiﬁc liter-

ature, but speciﬁc attention was given to describing the nature of secondary

minerals that are known to be the result of aqueous alteration. Clear evi-

dence of Nakhla being formed under the presence of water was found. This

evidence is compared with scientiﬁc literature describing recent results ob-

tained by instrumentation aboard spacecrafts and rovers. Finally, by using

Raman spectroscopy evidence of shock in the meteorite was presented and

put into context for the possible origin and ejection from the martian surface.

Upon the assumption of being a resonance with spin-parity J = 3=2-, the Lambda_c(2940)+ is described

in this thesis as a vector meson-baryon molecule. Also, a visible signal of this resonance

is found in the invariant mass spectrum of the Lambda_b -> pi D0 p decay. This is achieved after a

complete study of the interaction of pseudoscalar mesons and vector mesons with baryons in

the charm C = 1 sector within a coupled-channel approach in SU(4), using the hidden gauge

formalism to implement the interaction through a vector meson exchange model. The results of

the model presented here predict the Lambdac(2940)+ as a state with basically rho Sigma_c and K*Xi'c components,

but also coupling to the D*N and D*sLambda channels. It is the coupling to these latter

vector meson-baryon systems which allows the appearance of a peak in the D0p invariant mass

distribution of the b decay, signalling the presence of the Lambdac(2940)+. The study of the details

of the weak decay and the hadronization process leads to a clear signal of this resonance, as well

as other interesting features, which make the Lambda_b -> pi D0 p decay an interesting process to be

observed experimentally, both for validating the molecular nature of the Lambdac(2940)+ and for the

observation of new exotic hadron states.

Upon the assumption of being a resonance with spin-parity J=3/2-, the Lambda_c(2940)+ is described in this thesis as a vector meson-baryon molecule. Also, a visible signal of this resonance is found in the invariant mass spectrum of the Lambda_b -> pi D0 p decay. This is achieved after a complete…

Upon the assumption of being a resonance with spin-parity J=3/2-, the Lambda_c(2940)+ is described

in this thesis as a vector meson-baryon molecule. Also, a visible signal of this resonance

is found in the invariant mass spectrum of the Lambda_b -> pi D0 p decay. This is achieved after a

complete study of the interaction of pseudoscalar mesons and vector mesons with baryons in

the charm C = 1 sector within a coupled-channel approach in SU(4), using the hidden gauge

formalism to implement the interaction through a vector meson exchange model. The results of

the model presented here predict the Lambdac(2940)+ as a state with basically rho Sigma_c and K*Xi'c components,

but also coupling to the D*N and D*sLambda channels. It is the coupling to these latter

vector meson-baryon systems which allows the appearance of a peak in the D0p invariant mass

distribution of the b decay, signalling the presence of the Lambdac(2940)+. The study of the details

of the weak decay and the hadronization process leads to a clear signal of this resonance, as well

as other interesting features, which make the Lambda_b -> pi D0 p decay an interesting process to be

observed experimentally, both for validating the molecular nature of the Lambdac(2940)+ and for the

observation of new exotic hadron states.

Fluid inflation is proposed and studied.

Fluid inflation is proposed and studied.

We present a detailed analysis of the hidden charm sector (i.e. with cc pairs), with C = 0. In particular, we study the interaction between J/Y and nucleons and baryons. For this purpose, we use a theoretical model that has been built in previous works, that is based on a suitable extension of the…

We present a detailed analysis of the hidden charm sector (i.e. with cc pairs),

with C = 0. In particular, we study the interaction between J/Y and nucleons and

baryons. For this purpose, we use a theoretical model that has been built in previous

works, that is based on a suitable extension of the Weinberg Tomozawa term

to include, beside Chiral Symmetry, Spin Flavour Symmetry in the light sector and

Heavy Quark Spin Symmetry in the heavy sector. Within this model we obtain the

interaction between J=1/2+, J=3/2+ baryons and pseudoscalar and vector mesons which

contain light and heavy quarks. We carry out the calculation of some scattering observables,

such as cross sections and scattering lengths, while comparing the results

with other works. Moreover, we analyze the existence of the two new states recently

discovered by the LHCb Collaboration, the P+c (4380) and P+c (4450) pentaquarks.

We find that we can only reproduce one of the state, the Pc(4450) pentaquark, if we

modify considerably the subtraction point.

In this Master Thesis we investigate the correlation between Cosmic Microwave Background(CMB) lensing with cosmic voids in the large scale structure in the universe by using MICE-Grand Challenge(GC) simulation. We use the convergence map generated from MICE-Grand Challange simula- tion to search…

In this Master Thesis we investigate the correlation between Cosmic Microwave Background(CMB) lensing with cosmic voids in the large scale structure in the universe by using MICE-Grand Challenge(GC) simulation. We use the convergence map generated from MICE-Grand Challange simula- tion to search for correlation between CMB lensing convergence with cosmic voids. We identify the voids in MICE-GC simulation by using the void finder algorithm in Sanchez et al. (2016) and use different samples of input galaxies from MICE-GC and measure CMB lensing effect in these samples. One recent study Cai et al. (2016) found a significant correlation between Planck convergence data and BOSS-CMASS voids and we were developing our work in parallel to this study. In our study, we find ≈ 3σ correlation by using similar input sample (0.4

This project presents the analysis of the pulsar PSR J2022+3842 which has been previously identified as one of the most energetic pulsars in radio and X-rays. Here we analyse the source 3FGL J2022.2+3840 identifying it with the pulsar. The analysis has been taken from data observed by the LAT,…

This project presents the analysis of the pulsar PSR J2022+3842 which has been previously identified as one of the most energetic pulsars in radio and X-rays. Here we analyse the source 3FGL J2022.2+3840 identifying it with the pulsar. The analysis has been taken from data observed by the LAT, on board of the NASA satellite Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope, in order to study its gamma radiation from 60 MeV to 50GeV. Previously, in order to make the project more understandable, some theoretical aspects about very high energy radiation and pulsars are explained.

Using the Bayesian Photometric Redshift, a template-fitting based code, we compute the expected photometric accuracy for the Physics of the Accelerating Universe (PAU) sur- vey through simulations. We check its real performance by computing the photometric redshift using observed data through PAUCam…

Using the Bayesian Photometric Redshift, a template-fitting based code, we compute the expected photometric accuracy for the Physics of the Accelerating Universe (PAU) sur- vey through simulations. We check its real performance by computing the photometric redshift using observed data through PAUCam from a period of observations during the first semester of 2016. Then we validate the photo-z by comparing it to the highly reliable photometric and spectroscopic redshift from COSMOS survey. At the end we obtain a photometric accuracy of σ ∼ 0.0019(1 + z) for real data of PAU.

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